Ontology for Global Environmental Domain

The Life Domain of the Earth and the Sun, twin of celestial sphere

book 8 「例旨」Usage Guide

15357: ○蔽必由明。塞必由通。一一之態。不得不然。


15357:  Covering brightness is due to the presence of brightness. Blocking is blocking because there is something to pass through. One-to-one correspondence must be so.

15358:  蓋人之為生。必染於所習。

15358:  思うに、人が生きるということは必ず習得するものに染まるということである。

15358:  I think, that to live one's life is always to be imbued with what one learns.

15359-62: 染於所習。則失其所素。蓋俗習之蔽。学為之砭鍼。

15359-62: 習得するものに染まれば、染まる前の素朴な人間の本性を失ってしまう。だから、素朴な生活経験というものは学問がこれを正すのである。

15359-62: If we are steeped in what we learn, we lose the simple human nature we had before we were steeped in it. Therefore, the simple experience of life is corrected by learning.

15361-63: 学習之蔽。殆擲薬石。染之也易。素之也難。蔽之也易。復之也難。夫

15361-63: 学習の弊害というものは救い難く治す薬がない。素朴な心を染めるのは容易く、もとに戻すことは難しい。素朴な心を覆うのは簡単だが覆ったものを取り除くことは困難だ。

15361-63: The evils of learning are difficult to save and there is no medicine to cure them. It is easy to dye a naive mind, but difficult to restore it. It is easy to cover a naive mind, but difficult to remove what has covered it.

15364-65: 夫因循薫蒸之久。猶臭人之不臭其臭。屠人之不羶其羶。

15364-65: ぐずぐずと古いしきたりに従ってそれが染み付いてしまうのは、臭いが染み付いた人が臭いを感ぜず、屠殺を仕事とする人が血生臭さを感じないようなものだ。

15364-65: The old traditions are slowly being followed and soaked up, just as a person who has been soaked up by an odour does not smell it, and a person whose job is slaughtering does not smell blood.

15366-67: 数髪簡毛。非説之不精微。超天越地。非教之不広大。

15366-67: 髪の毛の数えて選りすぐるほどの学説が精緻でないはずがない。天を超え地を超えるほどの教えが広大でないはずない。

15366-67: How can a doctrine so selective as to be counted by the hair not be elaborate? How can a teaching that transcends the heavens and the earth not be vast?

15368-69: 惟各徳其所得而有。道其所由而行。

15368-69: しかし、それらはただ、おのおの学んで得心したことを心に納め、その規範とすることに従って行動するだけである。

15368-69: However, they only act in accordance with what they have learnt and acquired in their minds and in accordance with their norms.

15370:  拾珠而遺玉。悪珷玞而棄瓊瑶。

15370:  自らが学んだことを珠玉のように思って宝石を見落とし、宝石に似た美しい石と間違えて本物の宝石を捨ててしまうようなものだ。

15370:  It is like overlooking a gem by thinking of it as a gem of its own learning, and throwing away a real gem by mistaking it for a beautiful stone that resembles a gem.

15371:  異同紛縕。一護一訐。各拠其門。各守其戸。

15371:  諸説は紛々とし論争は絶えることがない。それぞれの学派を根拠とし、それぞれその学派の正当性を守る。

15371:  The theories are confusing and controversy never ceases. Each school of thought is based on a different school of thought and each defends the legitimacy of that school of thought.



15372-72:They defend each other's schools of thought and differ on the pros and cons. And so they end up staring at each other and hating each other.

15374:  学習之所以蔽人之聡明。病人之才力也。

15374:  それが、学問をして人の聡明さを覆い、人の才能を奪ってしまう理由である。

15374:  This is the reason why learning is used to cover people's intelligence and deprive them of their talents.



15375-76:We choose between right and wrong, and we determine right and wrong. It is impossible for a person to be without gain or loss because he is not a saint.



15375-76:We choose between right and wrong, and we determine right and wrong. It is impossible for a person to be without gain or loss because he is not a saint.

15377-78: 択而不精。将以紫乱朱。悪而不学。将以瞽忌相。

15377-78: だから、選んでも精緻ではなく、似た色を混ぜるような間違いをする。嫌って学ぼうとしないのは、見もせずに顔を嫌うようなものだ。

15377-78: だから、選んでも精緻ではなく、似た色を混ぜるような間違いをする。嫌って学ぼうとしないのは、見もせずに顔を嫌うようなものだ。

15379:  学而弗党。思而弗偏。獲則而履焉。斯道也。

15379:  学んで学派を作らず、思索して偏らず、思考の正しさを得てそれに従うのが学問の道というものである。

15379:  The way of learning is to learn and not form schools, to speculate and not be biased, to gain the rightness of thought and follow it.

15380:  我知其弗可及。而以射之拙廃鵠乎。

15380:  私は、それに及ばないことを知っている。しかし、弓を射るのが下手だからといってそれを的のせいにしたりはしない。

15380:  I know I am not up to it. But I don't blame it on the target just because I'm not a good bow shooter.



15381-83:From an early age, everything I touched and saw seemed questionable. The adults who explained things to me seemed noisy or unintelligible, as if they were talking in their sleep. Thoughts blocked my chest and I completely lost my mental equilibrium.



15384-85:People say that fire is hot because it is yang and water is cold because it is yin. As a child, I did not understand why it was hot if it was yang and cold if it was yin.



15386-87:Similarly, people say that the yang rises because it is light and the yin falls because it is heavy. The adults' thinking stops here. As a boy, my doubts grew louder and louder.



15388-90:Why do round, black things see things, why do deep, cavernous holes hear sounds? Why don't eyes hear sounds, why don't ears see things?

15391:  人則至是而釈。晋則不能釈。

15391:  大人たちはここで考えることをやめてしまうが、私の疑問は晴れなかった。

15391:  Adults would stop to think here, but my doubts were not answered.



15392-93:People condemn those who do not know on the basis of what they know as knowledge, and exclude those who do not do it on the basis of what they hold as the norm of their behaviour.



15394-96:People could make assertions there, but I was baffled. People would look to the classics for knowledge and explanations, but I could not believe them.



15397-98:When he talks about the world, he speaks in fragments of unintelligible things, and when he talks about life and death, he says vaguely incomprehensible things.



15399-60:They talk nonsense on the basis of things that don't exist. People didn't mind it, but it didn't sit well with me.



15401-02:I thought and thought again and again, deeply immersed in my thoughts. It was like looking up to the heavens and down to the earth through a small hole. It was impossible to think with any degree of self-control until the very end.



15403-05:Therefore, he authored this book. The book is written by means of a one-to-one mapping. The rules of its description are taken from this world. So I have not consulted classical exegesis. The terms are often coined by myself.

15406:  一気。侌昜也。大物。天地也。

15406:  この地球環境世界は陰陽の働きが生んでいる。この宇宙の構造は天地から出来ている。

15406:  This global environmental world is the result of the workings of yin and yang. The structure of this universe is made up of heaven and earth.

15407:  世曰方円。此曰直円。

15407:  世間の人々は大地は四角で天が蓋のように覆っているという。これをこの本では地球の中心から伸びる放射状の直線群と、同じく中心から広がる同心球と考える。

15407:  People say that the earth is square and the heavens cover it like a lid. In this book, this is thought of as a group of radial lines extending from the centre of the earth and a concentric sphere also extending from the centre.

15408:  世曰日月。此曰日影。

15408:  世間の人々は太陽と月を対比させるが、この本では太陽と宇宙の暗黒を対比させている。

15408:  While the public contrasts the sun with the moon, the book contrasts the sun with the darkness of space.



15409-10:Sometimes they created new names, sometimes they gave them a definition that was completely different from the old meaning.

15411:  惟求與天地合。而不暇顧定説。

15411:  ただ、地球環境世界と一致することのみを求めたので、定説を顧みる時間は無かった。

15411:  However, there was no time to reflect on the established theory, as it only sought to be consistent with the global environmental world.

15412:  惟冀人之不病於所習。以活於向所。

15412:  ただ、ひたすら願うのは、読者が自分が学んだ知識を前提とせず、眼前の対象そのものを知ることだけである。

15412:  However, there was no time to reflect on the established theory, as it only sought to be consistent with the global environmental world.

15413:  而是非之以天地。取捨之以天地。

15413:  だから、この本に書いていることの是非はこの地球環境世界に照らし合わせて論じてほしいし、取捨選択もその上で行って欲しい。

15413:  So I hope that the pros and cons of what is written in this book can be discussed in the light of this global environmental world, and that the selection and selection can be made on that basis.



15414-15:Please do not despise this new-born idea by confining yourself to one area of study or defending the theories of other wise philosophers, trapped in your respective disciplines.



15416-17:So if people who read this book compare it with existing knowledge or interpret historical books as a sourcebook, they will only criticise me more.

15418: ○其書四冊。曰本宗。曰天冊。曰地冊。曰小冊。

15418: ○この本は四冊で構成されている。総論部は「本宗」と題し、範疇論は「天冊」と題した。宇宙論は「地冊」と題し、人間論と生物論は「小冊」と題した。

15418: ○The book consists of four volumes. The general theory section is entitled 'Main Sect', the categorical theory is entitled 'Heavenly Book'. The cosmological section is entitled 'Earth Book', while the human and biological sections are entitled 'Small Book'.

15419:  本宗惟一冊。而他之三冊。各分両両。

15419:  総論部は全一冊である。他の三冊はふたつの部に分けて製本している。

15419:  The general introduction is in one volume. The other three books are bound in two parts.

15420:  本宗則語鬱浡之神。混淪之物。

15420:  総論部では、宇宙の活動領域と物質領域について書いている。

15420:  The general section describes the active and material domains of the universe.



15421-22:That being the case, the material domain of the global environmental world is established in this way because its initiating factors are active in this way, and the initiating factors are active in this way because the material domain is established in this way.



15423-24:What is established as such a world is the material realm, i.e. time and space, and the manifestations of the geocentric and heliocentric systems. The initiating factor is immaterial. The immaterial creates the categories and the material is shaped by the categories.

15425:  天冊則其鬱浡。故鬱浡活者。挙繋此。

15425:  範疇論で語っていることは発動因子とその活動の範疇である。故に発動因子にかかわるものはすべてここに書かれており、ここを参照している。

15425:  What we are talking about in the categorical theory is the category of triggering factors and their activities. Therefore, everything that concerns the initiating factor is written here and referred to here.

15426:  地冊則其混淪。故混淪立者。挙繋此。

15426:  物質領域は、時間と空間、および地球中心系と太陽中心系を書いている。故に物質領域を構成するものはすべてここに書かれており、ここを参照している。

15426:  The material domain describes time and space, and the geocentric and heliocentric systems. Therefore, everything that constitutes the material domain is written here and referred to here.



15427-29:The structure of existence by the principle of incompatibility is clearly divided by complete binary tree structure. It is because there is no boundary between them that space-time and orbital theories are discussed and furthermore geocentric and celestial own centre theories are explained.

15429:  混成没罅縫也。含則開焉。開則含焉。

15429:  時間と空間の内部に在るものは眼前に開示されており、眼前に開示されているものは時間と空間の内部に在る。

15429:  What is inside time and space is disclosed before the eye, and what is disclosed before the eye is inside time and space.

15430:  故鬱浡之神。混淪之物。已開於一焉。

15430:  だから、発動因子とそれによる活動、および宇宙を構成する物質と物体は、既に存在の全体性の中に開示されている。

15430:  So the initiating factor and the activity by it, as well as the matter and objects that make up the universe, are already disclosed in the wholeness of existence.

15431:  神開天地。侌昜絪縕。

15431:  発動因子とその発露による活動は地球環境世界を開き、陰が収束的運動を行い、陽が発散的運動を行う。

15431:  The triggering factors and the activities resulting from their emanations open up the global environmental world, with the yin performing convergent movement and the yang performing divergent movement.

15432:  故大廼能容小。小廼能居大。

15432:  故に、天球を構成するものは地上の生物類を収容することができ、地上の生物類は天球を構成するものの中にいる。

15432:  Hence, what constitutes the celestial sphere can accommodate terrestrial biota, and terrestrial biota are within what constitutes the celestial sphere.

15433:  大廼能給。小廼能資。

15433:  天球を構成するものは地上の諸生物に与えるものであり、地上の諸生物は天球を構成するものから与えられるものである。

15433:  What constitutes the celestial sphere is given to the terrestrial beings, and the terrestrial beings are given by what constitutes the celestial sphere.

15434:  自小観大。則容者居者。各自張勢。

15434:  地球上の諸存在から天球規模の存在を見れば、必然的に収容するものとその中に存在するものは、それぞれが一対一に対応している。

15434:  If we look at the celestial scale of existence from the perspective of the various beings on earth, there is a one-to-one correspondence between what is necessarily accommodated and what exists within it.

15435:  自小観佗。則佗則大焉。

15435:  小さなものからその他のものを見れば、その他のものはその小さいものよりも大きなものと成る。

15435:  If you look at the other from the point of view of the small, the other becomes bigger than the small.

15436:  大能統小。小能散大。

15436:  天球規模の大きなものはその中の小さなものを統率し、小さなものはその中に散らばっている。

15436:  The larger celestial scale governs the smaller ones within it, while the smaller ones are scattered throughout it.

15437:  大者不可窮。小者不可尽。

15437:  天球規模の大きなものは極まることがない。地球上の小さなものは尽きることがない。

15437:  The big things on the celestial scale are never extreme. Small things on the earthly scale are never exhausted.



15438-39:In the first place, man is only one of the various beings. The human mind is only one of the various active forces of nature.

15440:  我遂開其境。則鬱浡混淪。皆給我境。故

15440:  人間主体がその世界を開けば、必然的に宇宙の活動性と物質性は、すべて人間の世界と写像を構成する。

15440:  When the human subject opens its world, inevitably all the activity and materiality of the universe constitutes a mapping with the human world.

15441:  故以人統小。挙我措佗。

15441:  故に、人間を基準にして地上の諸存在を治めることができる。自らを取り立てて他を差し置くことができる。

15441:  Therefore, it is able to govern the beings of the earth on the basis of man. He is able to take himself up and set aside others.

15442:  是之為我小冊。

15442:  そこで地表の諸存在を論じる部を「小冊」と題した。

15442:  Therefore, the section discussing the various entities on the surface of the earth was titled "Small volume".

15443:  本宗包天地之両冊。為我為大冊。

15443:  そして、範疇論と宇宙論を含む総論部「本宗」を地表の諸存在を論じる「小冊」に対して「大冊」とした。

15443:  Then, the general theory section 'Main Sect', which includes categorical theory and cosmology, was designated as the 'Great Sect' as opposed to the 'Small Sect', which discusses the various entities on the earth's surface.

15444:  大無所不給。小無所不資。

15444:  地球環境世界は地球に射影しないものがなく、地表の諸存在はそれに依存せずに生きることは出来ない。

15444:  There is nothing in the global environmental world that does not project onto the earth, and the various beings on the surface of the earth cannot live without depending on it.



15445-46:Therefore, in the Small Book, the human domain is that which is active with the senses, while the material domain is that which is established.

15447:  物部者。分別大小者。便我地冊也。

15447:  その物質領域を論じるにあたっては、地表の存在と大規模な存在を分け「地冊」に大規模地球環境を書いた。

15447:  In discussing its material domain, he wrote about the large-scale global environment in the 'Earth Book', separating surface and large-scale existence.

15448:  人部者。分別天人者。便我天冊也。

15448:  人間を論じるにあたっては、私は人間と相互排反的関係にある存在を分け「天冊」にそれを書いた。

15448:  In discussing human beings, I have divided beings in a mutually exclusive relationship with them and written about them in the 'Heaven Book'.



15449-50:The global environmental world exists in time and space. If we talk about the flow of time, there is necessarily a pre-post relationship between descriptions. Conversely, if we talk about the space that fills up, there is inevitably no antecedent relation between words.

15451:  故天冊〉分部於活立〉

15451:  故に、範疇領域を論じた「天冊」は、地球環境世界の活動性を論じた「活部」と、定常性を論じた「立部」に分けられている。

15451:  Hence, the 'Heaven Book', which discusses the types domain, is divided into two parts: the 'Active part', which discusses the active nature of the global environmental world, and the 'Standing part', which discusses the stationary nature.

15452:  地冊》分部於没露》

15452:  物質領域を論じた「地冊」は、時間論・空間論・軌道論・場所論を論じた「没部」と、天球論・天体論・太陽気象論・地球気象論を論じた「露部」に分けられている。

15452:  The 'Earth Book', which discusses the material realm, is divided into the 'Submerged part', which discusses temporal, spatial, orbital and locational theory, and the 'Emergence part', which discusses celestial, astronomical, solar meteorological and terrestrial meteorological theory.



15453-54:The 'Heaven Book', which discusses the categorical domain, is divided into two parts, the 'Active part' and the 'Standing part', with the 'Active part' discussing types and activity. The other 'Standing part' discusses identity and activity.



15455-56:The 'Earth Book', which discusses the material realm of the global environmental world, is divided into the ’Submerged Part’ and the 'Emergence part’. The 'Submerged Part' discusses the movement of time, space, cosmic space and gravity, while the 'Emergence part' discusses the sky and celestial spheres that cover the global environmental world and the earth on which the environmental world rests.

15457:  小冊。物露人没者。以分大分天也。

15457:  地表の動植物を論じる「小冊」で、動植物を多く論じ、取り立てて人間を論じていないのは、排反性の原理によって地球環境世界をその物質面と構成面から考察した論理的かつ必然的な結果である。

15457:  The fact that the 'Small Volume', which discusses the flora and fauna of the earth's surface, discusses many plants and animals and not humans in particular, is the logical and inevitable result of considering the global environmental world in its material and compositional aspects according to the principle of exclusionary nature.



15458-62:So anyone wishing to understand the book may read the sentences from bottom to top, or follow the flow, or read from left to right, or from right to left. Or he may read it from the middle, from the beginning or from the end. It is just like a circle starting to move from where it touches.

15463:  若次序之。則本宗有統。

15463:  言葉や内容の秩序付けは、総論部の「本宗」に書いている。

15463:  The ordering of language and content is written in the General Commentary section, 'Main Volume'.



15464-66:The triggering factors can be activated and the endless material domain becomes the global environmental world. The human subject is a small entity, but it is in one-to-one confrontation with this great nature.



15467-69:I think that if man wishes to recognise this global environmental world as unspeakable in its transcendental subjectivity, he should return to ultimate non-presuppositionality and see the world itself, man himself, without preconceptions.

15470:  書與図皆贅疣。姑為魚兎設筌蹄爾。

15470:  この本の文章と図はすべて無駄なものである。理解のために作った梯子であるに過ぎないから、理解してしまったら無用のものとなる。

15470:  All the text and diagrams in this book are useless. They are only ladders built for understanding, and they are useless once you understand them.



15471-73:So, if you read this book, if what is written in it is consistent with your observation of this global environmental world, then endorse it, and if it is wrong, then disapprove it. It is not for me to get involved in that.

15474: ○物有経緯〉寓諸文辞者〉経可由先後而序〉緯不可両辞斉発〉

15474: ○地球環境世界には縦の系列と横の系列がある。これを文章に託すと縦系列は文字の前後関係で表現できるが、横の系列を同時に書くことは出来ない。

15474: ○There are vertical and horizontal series in the global environmental world. When this is put into writing, the vertical series can be expressed in terms of the back and forth relationship between the letters, but the horizontal series cannot be written at the same time.



15476-78:If existence is divided according to the principle of incompatibility, it is first divided into a mixed unity and an apparent discreteness. If this is projected onto a figure and a sentence, the discrete nature can be mapped onto a complete binary tree structure, but the mixed unity cannot be mapped onto it.



15479-80:So the sentences are intricate in their variation and the figures are orderly drawn by binary trees. In the first place, the global environmental world has an exhaustiveness of integration and dispersal.

15481:  於具一天地。則小猶大也。

15481:  地球環境世界の写像である限りにおいては、小さな生き物でも天球のようである。

15481:  Insofar as it is a mapping of the global environmental world, even the smallest creature is celestial.

15482:  故大物。一有二。二成一。

15482:  だから地球環境世界全体は、排反性の原理による二分木を内包し、二分木によって生み出されるものは地球環境世界の全体性を持っている。

15482:  So the entire global environmental world encompasses binary trees by the principle of incompatibility, and what is produced by binary trees is the totality of the global environmental world.

15483:  性物剖対。往無限焉。

15483:  世界を構成する諸存在の基本的性格と基本的物質性の相互排反性による二分木構造には終わりがない。

15483:  There is no end to the binary tree structure due to the mutually exclusive nature of the basic character and basic materiality of the various entities that make up the world.

15484:  置諸一塵埃。求諸一秋毫。亦猶同也。

15484:  世界のこの基本構成はどんなに小さなものにも見出される。

15484:  This basic configuration of the world is found in even the smallest things.

15485:  爰為図書以求彷彿。

15485:  それをこの本で図と文によって写し取ろうとしたのだ。

15485:  I have tried to copy it in this book by means of diagrams and text.



15486-87:In my view, the global environmental world unifies the celestial sphere environmentally on a celestial scale and the earth environmentally on a global scale. There is no existence that is not environmentally unified.



15488-91:If a reader of this book sees the word 'Heaven' and associates it with the familiar sky, or sees the word 'Earth' and associates it with the ground beneath his or her feet, or sees other characters and imagines something familiar, this does not mean that he or she understands this book.



15492-93:If you think about the circular diagram and do not consider the meaning of the straight lines, or if you consider the front diagram and forget the back diagram, you have not fully understood its meaning.

15494:  読得一声。須剖対性物。観一天地之成此。

15494:  この本を読んでひとつの名辞を知ったなら、それが指示する存在の基本的性格と物質的特性を因って来たる由縁を考察して、そこにひとつの地球環境世界が成り立っていることを知るべきである。

15494:  If you have read this book and become acquainted with a name, you should consider its origins in the basic character and material properties of the being to which it refers, and realise that a global environmental world has been created in it.

15495:  及重得一声。亦須剖対性物。

15495:  さらにひとつの名辞を知ったなら、また同様にその由来を尋ねてそれが指示する対象が陰陽と天地からできていることを知るべきである。

15495:  Furthermore, if you know one name, you should likewise inquire about its origin and know that the object to which it refers is made up of a yin and yang structure and a heaven and earth structure.

15496:  成一天地於此。以得其粲。以得其混。

15496:  ひとつの環境世界が成り立てば、必然的に完全二分木構造が有り、渾然一体と成った環境世界がある。

15496:  If an environmental world is formed, there is inevitably a complete binary tree structure and an environmental world that is a whole.

15497:  故。一事一際。一物一境。己入其境。而尽天地於其境。

15497:  だから、どのような事象、どのような物象であれ、自らがその世界に入ってそこに地球環境世界の全構成要素があるのを観察する。

15497:  So, whatever the event, whatever the physical phenomenon, enter the world yourself and observe all the components of the global environmental world there.



15498-500:Observe one component and you will see that all the other components are related to it. Take another component and you will see that everything is connected to it.

15501:  而丙丁。戊巳壬癸。所往皆然焉。

15501:  すべての構成要素がそうなっている。そうでない存在は無い。

15501:  All components are like that. No entity is otherwise.

15502:  是故。居機也。則天地皆機。

15502:  そういう世界構成であるから、軌道領域から見れば全世界が軌道領域に存在することに成る。

15502:  Because of this world structure, the whole world exists in the orbital domain from the point of view of the orbital domain.

15503:  居体也。則天地皆体。

15503:  形体領域から世界を見渡せば、全世界が形体領域に存在する。

15503:  If you look at the world from the form domain, the whole world exists in the form domain.

15504:  如此而後精麁相得。統散偏全相融。

15504:  このようにして精緻な存在と物質的な粗い存在が相互に浸透して、統合性・散在性・偏在性・全体性が融合している。

15504:  In this way, elaborate being and material coarse being permeate each other, integrity, scatteredness, ubiquity and wholeness are fused together.

15505:  一事一際。万物万境。

15505:  どんなに小さいものでもどんなに大きなものでも、地球上のどこでも、たとえ宇宙の果てでもそうでないところはない。

15505:  No matter how small or how big, there is nowhere on earth, even at the edge of the universe, where it is not so.



15506-07:Explaining it by words is like trying to measure the water in the sea with a ladle.

15508:  且言有統散。有反比。

15508:  それに加えて、言葉には対象を統合する名辞と個々の対象に付与された名辞が在る。かつ類推不可能なものどうしに付けられた名辞と類推可能な者どうしに付けられた名前がある。

15508:  In addition, words have terms that unify objects and terms that are attached to individual objects. In addition, there are terms attached to things that are not analogous and names attached to things that are analogous.

15509:  有先後之可序。有不用次序。

15509:  また前後関係を明確に示す事ができる語もあれば、順序付けが出来ない語も在る。

15509:  Some words can be clearly shown to have a front-back relationship, while others cannot be sequenced.

15510:  有専指其主。有挙一而例万。

15510:  その対象を指示するだけの名辞が在る一方で、ひとつの名辞が多くの対象を指示していることも在る。

15510:  While there are terms that only direct the object, a single term may direct many objects.


15511-12:もっぱらその対象を指示する名辞とはどんなものであろうか? 形態が物質を物体として形作ることによって、その物は他と明瞭に区別されるのである。

15511-12:What kind of term directs the object exclusively? The form shapes the substance as an object, which distinguishes it distinctly from others.

15513:  故其如説天説地説水説火〉専執其主〉

15513:  天球・地球・大気の冷却・加熱を説くような場合は、主にその指示対象を解説している。

15513:  If the term is such that it describes the celestial sphere, the earth, the cooling or heating of the atmosphere, it mainly explains the object to which it is directed.

15514:  挙一而例万者何》以性見気者》混然融万物》

15514:  ひとつの語が多数の対象を指示している場合がある。たとえば「性」という語はあらゆる存在の性格を指示している。

15514:  A single word may direct a number of objects. For example, the word 'nature' directs the character of any existence.



15515-16:Hence, the words '徳' and '道' or '性' and '才' permeate and exist in all things.

注: 「徳」は潜在能力、「道」はその発現経路を意味する。ここでの「性」は地球の生命圏、「才」は絶え間ない現在の表れを意味している。
Note: '徳' refers to potential, '道' to the path of its manifestation. '性' here refers to the earth's life sphere, and '才' to the incessant manifestation of the present.

15517:  言語之道。有譬諭。譬諭者。假彼曉此之術也。

15517:  言葉の使い方の中には比喩というものが在る。比喩とは或るものを指して別のものを説明することである。

15517:  Metaphor is a way of using language. A metaphor is a reference to one thing to describe another.

15518:  今挙一而例万者。示其端也。

15518:  仮にひとつのものを取り上げて他の多くのものを示すのは、その一端を示して他の物を例示することである。

15518:  To take one thing and show many other things is to show one part of it and illustrate other things.



15519-20:So it is not a metaphor. So sometimes it raises one of many and talks about it, and sometimes it raises one of many and talks about it, and sometimes it talks about its kind by borrowing one of many.

15521:  説露者。多専指其主。

15521:  現れたものを解説する場合は、用語の多くは指示対象と一致している。

15521:  When explaining what appears, many of the terms correspond to the indicated object.

15522:  説没者。多挙一而例佗。

15522:  非物質を論じる場合の多くは、ひとつのものを取り上げて他の物を例示している。

15522:  Many cases of discussing immateriality take one thing and give examples of other things.

15523:  蓋混成粲立。天地之態然。

15523:  「混成」や「粲立」などという語がそうである。この世界の存在様態はそうなっている。

15523:  Such is the case with the words 'Mixed unity' and 'Clear separability'. Such is the mode of existence of this world.



15524-25:That is why some sentences may have the first sentence hanging on the two lines below. There are cases where one of the pair is not written, but only the other.



15526-27:Words may be paired in a sentence or paired apart.



15528-29:Although the words are paired, their meanings can be very broad.



15530-31:There are cases where there are pairs of objects, but the sentences directing them have different lengths. One sentence may indicate one object, but the other may indicate many objects.



15532-33:In addition, there are two types of relationship: those separated by the principle of incompatibility in correspondence, and those that are deducible from the same kind, and those that can help each other and are widely pervasive.The world will not be understood until all those things are revealed.

15534:  是斯語之文法也。図。有直円。有大小。

15534:  それがこの本の記述法である。かつ、図には直線と円がある。長い直線と短い直線、大きな円と小さな円がある。

15534:  That is how the book is described. And there are straight lines and circles in the diagram. There are long and short lines, large and small circles.



15535-38:The large circle imitates a mixed unity, the short and thick straight line an obvious separation. The long, thin straight line imitates division according to the principle of incompatibility, while the small circle imitates the correspondence between the two.

15539:  文有反合〉図有表裏〉

15539:  文には反対関係にあって合わせれば合致するものがあり、図には表裏で反対関係にあって合わせれば合致するものがある。

15539:  Some sentences are opposites and match if they are matched, and some diagrams are opposites front to back and match if they are matched.

15540:  文有剖対》図有双岐》

15540:  また文の多くは黒い傍点と白い傍点で示した対句形式で書かれており、図には黒く太い線で示した二分木がある。

15540:  Many of the sentences are also written in couplet form, indicated by black and white bypasses, and the diagram has a binary tree, indicated by a thick black line.

15541:  是図之大意。有合於書者也。

15541:  これは図の意図するところが文に一致していることを示している。

15541:  This indicates that the intention of the diagram is consistent with the statement.

15542:  噫夫。画華極妙麗。而不復含子。

15542:  ああ、ここに花を描いて美しさの限りを尽くしたとしても、その花に種があるわけではない。

15542:  Oh, even if I painted a flower here and there to the fullest extent of its beauty, it would not have a seed in it.

15543:  刻鳥致彷彿。豈為其睍睍。

15543:  生きているかのように鳥の彫刻を作っても、鳥がさえずるわけではない。

15543:  Making a sculpture of a bird as if it were alive does not mean that the bird will sing.



15544-45:Here, nature's mastery of creation does not give it to man, and what man makes does not resemble nature itself.

15546:  所獲則魚兎〉所設則筌蹄。

15546:  この本は、魚や兎を捕ろうとして罠を仕掛けるようなものでしか無い。

15546:  The book is just like setting a trap to try and catch fish or rabbits.

15547-8: 坱坱焉。洋洋焉。靡往匪気也。靡往匪物也。

15547-8: 宇宙は果てしなく限りないが、どこまで行っても非物質でないところはなく物質でないところもない。

15547-8: The universe is endless and limitless, but no matter how far you go, there is no place that is not immaterial and no place that is not material.

15549:  物可見。而気則漠然。漠然難見。

15549:  物質や物体は見ることができるが、非物質や非物体はぼんやりしている。ぼんやりしているものは明瞭には見えない。

15549:  Matter and objects can be seen, but immaterial and non-objects are dim. What is dim cannot be seen clearly.



15550-51:So the immaterial is also difficult to observe its binary tree structure. Immaterials also have both fine and coarse texture. So the only way is to infer the elaborate from the coarse. It is like starting from a low place to climb a high place.



15552-55:People say that in this endlessly large and dynamic world of life, what they do not see, hear, touch and feel in this world is empty, nothingness.

15556:  其未知條理。認為空無。

15556:  それは未だに排反性の原理による完全二分木構造が世界を構築していることを知らないから、空だ無だなどと言うのだ。

15556:  It still doesn't know that the complete binary tree structure based on the principle of incompatibility constructs the world, so it says it's empty, nothing, etc.



15557-58:That is not unreasonable. The function of yin and yang, I think, is to make the dimension of existence the same while making the thing it inhabits the opposite.

15559:  故充與空成。無與有偶。

15559:  故に、満ちるという事象と空虚という事象と、無いということと有るということが排反対事象に成る。

15559:  Therefore, the events of fullness and emptiness, absence and presence are Incompatible twin events.

15560:  其所謂空者〉空于体〉而不空于気焉〉

15560:  その空と言われるものは、定まった形を持っていないという意味では何もないのだが、無形のものに対して空虚なのではない。

15560:  That which is said to be empty is nothing in the sense that it has no fixed form, but it is not empty with respect to the formless.

15561:  其所謂無者》無于質》而不無于気矣》

15561:  その無と言われるものは、実態として存在していないという意味では何もないのだが、無形のものに対して無なのではない。

15561:  That which is said to be nothing is nothing in the sense that it does not exist as a reality, but it is not nothing to the intangible.

15562:  試観製水注。必穿二孔。

15562:  試しに書道で使う日本の水差しを作ることを考えると、水差しには必ずふたつの穴がある。

15562:  If we consider making a Japanese jug for use in calligraphy as a test, there are always two holes in the jug.



15563-64:One hole lets air in and the other lets water out.If a certain amount of water is produced, the same amount of air is let in.

15565:  水尽則気充〉気不出則水不入》

15565:  水が出尽くしたら中は空気で一杯になっている。その空気が外に出ないように穴を塞げば水差しには水は入らない。

15565:  Once the water has run out, the inside is full of air. If the hole is plugged to prevent that air from getting out, no water will enter the jug.



15566-67:So everywhere that is not ground is heaven, and everywhere where matter does not exist is immaterial.



15568-69:Originally, water and air do not mix and cohabitate, and both water and air enter and exit through those holes.

15570:  既已空無。豈以門戸為哉。已有由門戸。已與物争居。

15570:  本当に空であり無であるならば、どうして穴から出たり入ったりするのだろうか。出入りするものであるのだから、水と場所を争うのだ。

15570:  If it is really empty and nothing, why does it go in and out of holes? Since it is something that goes in and out, it competes with water for space.

15572-73: 非厳然充且有者哉。雖充而有。而闃無声臭。是廼気之謂也。

15572-73: 空気は確かに充満して存在している。しかし音も臭いもない。だから非物体ではあるが存在する。

15572-73: The air is certainly present in full. But it has neither sound nor smell. So it is a non-object, but it exists.
注: 江戸中期の日本には空気に該当するという言葉がなかった。オランダから'LUFT POMP'の製造説明書が伝わってきたときは、空気という言葉がなかったので「ポンプ機」と訳されていた。時間や空間を明確に認識して居た梅園は、水差しを比喩として場の存在を示そうとしたのだと思われる。

Note: In mid-Edo Japan, there was no word that corresponded to air. When the manufacturing instructions for the 'LUFT POMP' arrived from the Netherlands, they were translated as 'pump machine' because there was no word for air. Baien, who had a clear perception of time and space, seems to have used the jug as a metaphor to indicate the existence of a space field.



15574-75:This is how humans and other organisms survive in them. But where there are terrestrial organisms, there are no underwater ones.



15576-77:If terrestrial organisms are placed in water or underwater organisms are raised on land, they will immediately die. Both are the same in that they are opposites of each other.



15578-79:I am on the ground now. If I hang a piece of rope in an attempt now, it will be in a straight line without being raised or lowered. The power to pull the rope is linear.



15580-81:Another attempt is to make a leather bag, filled with air and tightly bound so that it does not leak out.

15582:  則雖千鈞以圧之。而不壓焉。

15582:  そうすると強い力でこれを押しつぶそうとしても潰れない。

15582:  Then, even if you try to crush this with a strong force, it will not be crushed.

15583:  観此気之持。嚢破。則爆然為風。

15583:  この中の空気が圧力に耐えているのが分かる。もし袋が敗れれば、空気は爆風となって広がる。

15583:  The air inside this leather bag can be seen to bear the weight of the bag. If the bag is defeated, the air spreads as a blast.



15584-86:From this we can see that what we know as wind is the movement of air. When the wind stops, we feel warmth. From this we know that warmth is felt when there is no wind.

15587:  物入水則湿。在此則燥。故命名曰燥。観其與水相拒。

15587:  物を水につければ湿る。空気の中にあれば乾く。だから私はそれに「燥」という名を付けた。水と乾燥は排反対事象であることがわかる。

15587:  If an object is in water, it becomes wet. If it is in air, it dries. That is why I gave it the name '燥,dryness'. It can be seen that water and dryness are Incompatible twin events.
注: 排反対事象である「水」と「燥」の統合概念が「水圏」である。

Note: The integrated concept of the Incompatible twin events 'water' and 'dryness' is the 'hydrosphere'.

15589:  則雖気乎有体。有体者。得処而居。

15589:  つまり、空気は気体であり、それが存在する場所がある。

15589:  In other words, air is a gas and there is a place for it to exist.



15590-91:Air does not contain water as a liquid and has no fixed form. Yet, as such, it has a place and exists and constitutes Incompatible twin events with the beings on the earth's surface.

15592:  気亦物也已。物莫非気。気莫非物。

15592:  したがって気体とは言っても基本的には物質なのである。物質であっても気体の性質を全く持っていないことはなく、気体であっても物質の性質を全く持っていないということはありえない。

15592:  Therefore, even though it is a gas, it is fundamentally a substance. It is not possible for a substance to have none of the properties of a gas, and it is not possible for a gas to have none of the properties of a substance.



15593-94:Air is a gas, but it is not a substance. On the contrary, matter is an object by condensing dilute gases. It does not have the properties of a gas at all.



15595-96:Earlier, something like air vying for a place in a jug is coarse-textured. What is vague and difficult to recognise is an elaborate entity.

15597:  知麁而不知精。詎在知物。

15597:  可視的・可触的なものを知って不可視的・不可触的なものを知らないで、どうして天地間にある一切のものを知ることができるだろうか。

15597:  How can one know all things between heaven and earth without knowing the visible and tangible and not knowing the invisible and inaccessible?

15598:  其未知物。詎在知気。

15598:  天地間にある一切のものを知らずにどうして不可視なものを知ることができるだろうか?

15598:  How can we know the invisible without knowing everything that is between heaven and earth?

15599:  気麁則体露〉

15599:  語り得ざる一全体は、肌理が粗くなると物質世界を現す。

15599:  The unspeakable one whole reveals the material world when it becomes coarse-grained.

15600:  気精則体没》

15600:  語り得ざる一全体は、肌理が精緻になると非物質になる。

15600:  The unspeakable one whole becomes immaterial when the texture is elaborated.

15601:  没而為鬱浡之神者〉徳性〉

15601:  非物質化して発動因子となるものは語り得ざる一全体のポテンシャルである。

15601:  What is dematerialised and becomes a group of triggering factors is the potential of one whole that cannot be talked about.
注: 梅園はそのポテンシャルを持っているのが織り姫であり、その機織り作業の結果として物理的な宇宙を超越的に内包した地球環境世界が生まれ、 その機織り作業は終わることがないと考えていた。これはロジャー・ペンローズが提唱している波動関数の収束理論とよく似ている。 梅園は縦糸と緯糸の交わる点が収束点だと考えている。その点に様々な色があり、それが昇る龍や舞う鳳凰に譬えられた自然界そのものとなる。 要するに液晶画面のドットと同じで縦糸と横糸の交わりがないと画像、つまり自然が現れない。液晶画面の場合は平面による擬似的な像なので大きさがあるが、 現実の自然の場合は無限小の一点から発出したものは粗いもので物質であると梅園は考えたようである。 つまり、梅園の言う「巧婦の意匠」とペンローズの言う「波動関数の組織的収束」Orchestrated objective reduction は実は同じものである可能性がある。 このふたつの歴史的理論が融合するのはまだまだ先のことだろうと思う。おそらくペンローズ博士や私が生きているうちには無理だろう。両者の大きな違いは、 梅園は自然界全体で'Orchestrated objective reduction'が起きていると考えていたのに対し、ペンローズ博士は脳の中で起きていると考えている点である。

Note: Baien believed that weavers possess its potential, and that the result of their weaving work is a global environmental world that transcendently encompasses the physical universe, and that the weaving work never ends. This is similar to the theory of convergence of wave functions proposed by Roger Penrose. Baien believes that the point of convergence is the intersection of the warp and weft yarns. At that point, there are various colours, which become the natural world itself, analogous to a rising dragon or a dancing phoenix. In short, just like the dots on an LCD screen, without the intersection of the warp and weft threads, an image, in other words nature, cannot appear. In the case of the LCD screen, there is size because it is a pseudo-image made of flat surfaces, but in the case of real nature, Baien seems to have thought that what emerges from a single infinitesimally small point is coarse and material. In other words, it is possible that what Baien calls 'Weaver's design' and Penrose's 'Orchestrated objective reduction', are in fact the same thing. I think it will be a long time before these two historical theories merge. Probably not in the lifetime of Dr Penrose or myself. The main difference between them is that Baien believed that 'orchestrated objective reduction' occurred throughout nature, whereas Dr Penrose believed that it occurred in the brain.

15602:  成而露混淪之体者》天地》

15602:  物質によって形成され、果てしない地球環境領域を構築するのは、天地構造である。

15602:  It is the heaven-earth structure that is formed by matter and builds the endless global environmental world.

15603:  露者〉侌也〉

15603:  物質としての地球環境は陰領域である。

15603:  The global environment as a material domain is a yin domain.

15604:  没者》昜也》侌昜無先後。

15604:  物質としての地球環境を動かすものは陽領域である。陰陽には先後関係がない。

15604:  What drives the global environment as material domain is the yang domain. Yin and yang, the cosmic dual forces, have no pre-post relationship.

15605:  挙没則露従〉

15605:  物質としての地球環境を動かすものの名辞には、それによって動かされるものの名辞が付随する。

15605:  The name of what moves the global environment as material is accompanied by the name of what is moved by it.

注: 原文がなぜこうのような訳文になるのかは、初歩的な集合論とヴィトゲンシュタインの写像理論がわからないと理解できない。この訳文は「没」「露」を下の意味で理解している。これは梅園が出現した世界を物質領域と非物質領域に分けて考えていたことを示している。
Note: It is not clear why the original text is translated in this way, unless you know elementary set logic and Wittgenstein's Picture Theory of Language. This shows that Baien divided the emergent world into material and immaterial domains. 15606: is similar.

15606:  挙露則没従》

15606:  物質としての地球環境を構成する要素の名辞には、それらを動かすものの名辞が付随する。

15606:  The names of the elements that make up the global environment as matter are accompanied by the names of the things that move them.

15607:  読者。従拈不必序先後。

15607:  読者は、記述の錯綜をそのまま読んで、語の前後関係を考えてはならない。

15607:  Readers should not read the complications of the description as they are and consider the back and forth relationship between the words.

注: 「ひねりに従って語の前後関係を考えるな」というのは、用語の排反性やハイパーリンクのことを言っている。語の前後関係を考えるなというのは、文を読むという時系列行為によってすべてが現在に存在していることを見落とすなと言う意味である。

Note: 'Don't think about the backwards and forwards of words according to the twist' refers to terminological exclusivity and hyperlinks. 'Don't think about the pre- and post-relationships of terms' means don't overlook that everything is present by the chronological act of reading the sentence.
When we read Matsuo Basho's haiku 'The rough sea, extending toward Sado Isle, the Milky Way', we know that everything is present in the moment. Essentially, the Japanese language has no tenses. The original Japanese and Chinese writing is a language made up entirely of present tenses and hyperlinks.



15608-10:In this book, the visible and the invisible are described as simultaneously parallel, because of the attempt to map brilliant separateness and mixed unity.

注: たとえば「顔に目鼻があるから壺には凹凸がある」という文の意味がわかる人は居ないだろう。しかし、ルビンの壺を見ながらなら分かるだろう。 自然界の写像は梅園の頭脳の中ではできていたのだが、それを写すツールがこの時代では筆と墨と和製コンパスしか無かったのだ。現代なら仮想現実に実装できる。仮想現実に実装できれば文献としての『玄語』はたんなる文化遺産になる。

Note: For example, no one would understand the meaning of the statement 'The jar has an uneven surface because the face has eyes and nose'. But they would understand it if they were looking at a Rubin vase. The mapping of the natural world had been created in Baien's mind, but the only tools available at the time to copy it were a brush, ink and a Japanese compass. Today, they can be implemented in virtual reality. If it could be implemented in virtual reality, the Gengo as literature would become a mere cultural heritage.

15611: ○夫人以蜉蝣之年。眇処天地。

15611:  人は蜉蝣のように短い年月を借り、世界の一隅に生きている。

15611:  Human beings live in a corner of the world, borrowing years as short as a damselfly.

15612:  病于視聴之弗廣。苦于応接之弗遍。

15612:  人間は、学んで知ることの小ささに苦しみ、世界経験の狭さに苦しむ存在である。

15612:  Humans are beings who suffer from the smallness of what they learn and know, and the narrowness of their world experience.



15613-15:If we cannot observe this world in detail and become familiar with its mode of existence, it is like a broken mirror that does not show the whole of a thing's appearance, or a momentary light that does not illuminate the whole of darkness.



15616-17:There are many intelligent people in the world. But no one has yet revealed why the world is the way it is.



15618-19:Everyone sees half the world and thinks it is the whole world. They see the ceaseless and endless workings of creation and generation and say it is empty, it is nothing.

15620:  蓋天地。混円其形。虚実物於其中。

15620:  この地球環境世界は、その形態を球状にして、物質も非物質もその中に存在している。

15620:  This global environmental world is spherical in its form and both material and immaterial exist within it.



15621-22:In this day and age, weighing and measuring has become much more elaborate and we have become very adept at knowing the shape of nature.



15623-24:But the reason why the global environmental world is still not clear why it is made in this way is that we do not know the yin and yang effects from which the various phenomena derive.



15625-26:Yin and Yang are the opposite but Incompatible twin events without which the other cannot exist. No one sees one of them, but no one sees them in their entirety.



15627-28:The reason why we cannot see the whole that integrates both when we are already looking at one or the other is that we do not yet know the final point of return of the binary tree.

15629:  已得條理之所帰。四肢百骸。得其所統。

15629:  二分木構造の帰着点がわかれば、自然界を構成するすべてのものはそれを統率する唯一者を獲得する。

15629:  Once the point of return of the binary tree structure is known, everything that makes up the natural world acquires a single entity that governs it.

15630:  而知其所分。奏刀騞然。肯綮自分。

15630:  そうしてその分離の要諦を知れば、自然界を構成するすべてのものはあるべき領域にあることが分かる。

15630:  If we then know the system of that separation, we can see that everything that makes up the natural world is in the domain in which it should be.

15631:  雖至族之難為。而視止行遅。謋然而解。

15631:  相談できる人は居ないし、見ては止まり止まっては見るの繰り返しで思考はなかなか進まないが、一瞬にして視界が広がることがある。

15631:  There is no one to talk to, and it is difficult to make progress in thinking due to the repetition of looking, stopping and looking, but there are times when the view is momentarily clearer.

15632: ○一一者。侌昜也。之為條理。気物分〉性体合》

15632:  一対一の二分木構造の一方が陰であればもう一方は陽である。これが自然界の仕組みである。非物質と物質は相互排除的に分離し、二分岐とその結合の連鎖は一全体を構成する。

15632:  If one side of a one-to-one binary tree structure is yin, the other side is yang. This is how the natural world works. Immaterial and material are mutually exclusive and separate, and the chain of bifurcations and their union constitutes one whole.



15633-34:So the union is the union of things separated by the principle of incompatibility. In that separation there is immateriality and matter, immateriality has a yin and yang structure and matter has a heaven-earth structure.



15635-37:Wherever you look in this global environmental world, there is nothing that is not made up of yin and yang and heaven-earth structures. Everyone talks about yin and yang and heaven and earth.

15638:  於戯尚哉。庖犠氏之後。我未見能述侌昜者。

15638:  伏羲以降、長いあいだ私は陰と陽を説明できる人を見たことがない。

15638:  In the name of god, after Fuxi I have not seen anyone who can describe yin and yang.



15639-40:There is a way to know how yin and yang works. Trying to force yourself to know it without knowing that way is like discussing a painting without seeing it or a song without hearing it.



15641-42:Eventually, the theory is used to form a theory. This is like peeping into a part of the world and hearing that it is the whole of the world. Those who speak without seeing and argue without hearing deceive people, but such theories cover the world.



15643-44:Such theories were pioneered by Confucianists, Taoists, Mohists, School of Names and Legalism. Over thousands of years since Nine Great Laws, enough books have been produced there to carry on horse-drawn wagons and to fill a library.



15645-47:It is nothing more than repeated fumigation. Those books are no different from the odours that have seeped in. They lack empirical evidence for the global environmental world, which has begun to be questioned by some in recent years as observations have become more advanced.



15648-49:More recently, some have discussed the fallacies of Chinese thought. But even if they realise the errors, they have not yet reached the truth. That would be like walking down the street at night with a torch raised.

15650:  條理者。一一也。分而反焉。合而一焉。

15650:  この本で示される自然界の構造は、排反性の原理による自然界の分割を示している。分割されて正反対のものになるが、正反対のものを合わせるとひとつになる。

15650:  The structure of the natural world shown in this book illustrates the division of nature by the principle of incompatibility. It is divided into opposites, but when the opposites are put together they become one.

15651:  是以。反観合一。依徴於正。非可以私調停也。

15651:  だから、反対のものがぴたりとひとつの組み合わせになるかどうか、自然をよく観察して照合する必要がある。そこに主観的な判断を入れてはならない。

15651:  Therefore, it is necessary to carefully observe and match nature to see if opposites fit together. Subjective judgements must not be included in this process.



15652-63:Man is a subjective being, conscious and capable of knowledge, while nature is an objective being, doing without thinking and becoming without thinking. This separation of man and the natural world is based on the principle of incompatibility.



15654-56:Thinkers in the past inferred nature from their subjectivity. And at the end of the day, they trapped themselves in their own subjective judgements. They may be beautiful and moral, but they have not solved the true nature of the global environmental world. Not to mention the idea of neither beauty nor goodness.



15657-58:The principle of incompatibility ensures that the separated objects are exactly combined into one. If you cut a piece of paper with scissors, you can see that it is uneven and tilted, but if you match these, the cut line disappears.They are Incompatible twin events.

15659:  天虚地実。気動物静。火熱氷寒。雲升雨降。無往不然者。

15659:  天球は大きく散り広がり地球は小さく硬い塊となる。物質性を失ったものは動き、物質性を獲得したものは静止する。火は熱く氷は冷たい。雲は湧き上がり雨は降る。地球環境世界は排反対事象的な双子の集合体なのだ。

15659:  The celestial sphere disperses and spreads wide and the earth becomes a small, hard mass. That which has lost its materiality moves and that which has gained materiality stands still. Fire is hot and ice is cold. Clouds rise and rain falls. The global environmental world is a collection of Incompatible twin events.



15660-61:The task of collating what is separated by the principle of incompatibility leaves no room for subjective fallacies.



15662-63:No matter how widely one is acquainted with various studies, no matter how intelligent one is, if the knowledge is not derived from the principle of incompatibility, it cannot be regarded as correct knowledge.

15664:  噫窺窬之所繇。剏于推己窺不同于己者。

15664:  人が対象に対する判断を間違えるのは、自分の思い込みを対象に押し付けることに始まる。

15664:  The reason why people make wrong judgements about a subject begins with imposing their own assumptions on the subject.

15665:  夫天者。反人者也。推人窺天。天人混焉。

15665:  そもそも客観的な世界は人間主観の排反対事象であるから、人間主観によって世界を認識すれば、主観と客観が混濁してしまう。

15665:  In the first place, the objective world is the Incompatible twin events of human subjectivity, so if the world is perceived according to human subjectivity, subjectivity and objectivity become muddled.



15666-68:Scholars discussing the world, whether discussing numbers, existence or non-existence or the truth or falsehood of arguments, only the eloquent win the argument.



15669-70:It is the urgent task of scholars to distinguish between the objective world and human subjectivity. If we cannot discuss this clearly, we are no better than infants.

注: ここで語られている客観世界は、自然科学的に客観措定された世界を意味しているのではない。フッサールの生活世界の学を超えた地球環境世界の学が『玄語』のテーマである。ヨーロッパでは絶対的な力を持って拡張されていた自然科学的世界像と機械文明への適用に対するアンチテーゼとして「生活世界の学」が提供されたのだが、梅園はニュートンの後追い補完発生としてニュートンの「世界体系」そのものに対するアンチテーゼとして『玄語』を書いたと思われる。

Note: The objective world spoken of here does not mean the world objectively posited in natural science. The study of the global environmental world, which goes beyond Husserl's study of the living world, is the theme of "Gengo". The 'study of the living world' was offered as the antithesis to the natural-scientific world picture that had been extended with absolute force in Europe and its application to mechanical civilisation, and Baien seems to have written GENGO as the antithesis to Newton's 'world system' itself as a follow-up complementary outbreak of Newton's work. The "Gengo" is thought to have been written as the antithesis of Newton's world system itself.
The follow-up complementary generation of Newtonian mechanics was extended by Newton himself as the study of alchemy and by Albert Einstein as the theory of special and general relativity, but in Gengo it is the complementary generation of the worldview itself. This makes it a world-form very compatible with Husserl's study of the Life World and Arthur Koestler's Holon.
The East India Company, which came from the Netherlands to Dejima in Nagasaki, introduced the shortcomings of Newtonian mechanics to Miura Baien, and a summary of this is recorded in World information delivered by ships from the Netherlands, but the letter sent to the popular scholar by the Nagasaki correspondent Kogyu Yoshio(1724-1800)is more important.

15671:  人苟有志于弁事物。須先自此始也。

15671:  人はもしわずかでも物事について語ろうとするのであれば、まず主観と客観の区別から論じるべきである。

15671:  If one wants to talk about things, even slightly, one should first discuss the distinction between subjective and objective.

15672: ○物者。体成而立。故條理井然。

15672:  地球環境世界の物質的側面は形体が成立して初めて存在できる。だから、そこには排反性の原理が明瞭に認識される。

15672:  The material aspect of the global environmental world can only exist if a form is established for it. Therefore, the principle of incompatibility is clearly recognised there.



15673-74:The phenomenological aspects of the global environmental world are complex and changing. It is clear that these phenomena are occurring according to the principle of incompatibility, but they are difficult to understand because of the complexity of change.



15675-76:Historical scholars failed to find the principle of incompatibility because they were misled by the complexity of natural phenomena.



15677-78:For this reason, the book describes the objects that make up nature in an orderly manner according to the principle of incompatibility, while the description of the phenomena is convoluted. If the reader wishes to read the changes in natural phenomena in this book, he should first realise the following.



15679-80:Certain terms in this book refer to something in the natural domain, some words refer to something in the human domain, some words refer to a phenomenon and some words refer to an object. Readers should identify these before reading this book.



15681-87:The word is the name of the object and the object is real. The object is an objective entity and the names are self-given by man. If we construct an objective world from a human point of view, it conforms within it, but diverges outside it.



15688-89:Sometimes the names are different and the objects are the same. And sometimes the names are the same and the objects are different.



15690-91:For example, each of the mapping relations denoted algebraically as 'one-one' is given the name yin and yang. The character of the mapping relation between heaven and earth is also given the name yang and yin respectively.



15692-93:In addition, the names heaven and ground are assigned to the vertical and horizontal series of nature, respectively: heaven to that which has lost its materiality and ground to that which has appeared with materiality.



15694-95:Solar weather is also weather. Earth weather with respect to the rotation of celestial bodies is also weather. The same name for weather has different indicative objects.



15696-97:Water and atmosphere separately are both geospheric water domains. Water and atmosphere combined and contrasted with the crust are also geospheric water domains.

15698-718: この間の文は名前が同じで指示対象が異なる場合の代表例を列挙している。英語化できないので省略する。

15698-718: The intervening sentences list typical examples of cases where the name is the same and the indicated object is different. They are omitted because they cannot be translated into English.



15719-21:In the celestial-scale spatial domain, the elevation motion of the earth's gravitropic sphere and the rotational motion of the celestial sphere are the exhaustion events. Both eastward and westward are rotational motions of the celestial sphere, and eastward and westward are exhaustion events.



15720-21:Annual and diurnal motions are Incompatible twin events. The phenomena in the astronomical domain that do not directly affect life phenomena change over a long period of time. Incompatible twin events are astronomical phenomena directly related to the domain of life, which change from moment to moment.



15722-23:In the non-material, space-time domain, the phenomena that cause the switching of day and night and seasons are astronomical phenomena that directly affect life phenomena. Incompatible twin events are natural and astronomical phenomena in the distant past and future.



15724-25:Some of the terms used to describe humanity in the book may have very different meanings to which they refer.


15726-30:As in 15698-718, the intervening sentences list typical examples of cases where the name is the same but the object of the instruction is different. They are omitted because they cannot be anglicised.

15731:  則声主不同而其帰一也。

15731:  名前と指示対象が異なっていても指示対象が同じであることに変わりはない。

15731:  Even if the name and the object of the instruction are different, the object of the instruction is still the same.

注: 名前と指示対象の関係は、L.ヴィトゲンシュタインの写像理論の先駆的業績であるが、私は『論理哲学論考』におけるヴィトゲンシュタインの論理がシェファーのストロークと同じであることから、 この二人が天台宗が持つ何らかのルートから『玄語』の論理、つまり排反性の原理を直感的に理解して現代論理学の基礎のひとつとしたのであろうと考えている。「玄語」の論理は'one/(one/one)'であるが、バートランド・ラッセルは1919年に、'Introduction to mathematical philosophy'の中で t/(t/t)がp/(r/q)の特殊な場合であることを指摘している。ラッセルはコンピュータ言語のもととなるタイプ理論を構築したが、梅園は江戸中期に地球生態系の写像理論をほぼ完成させていた。問題は、これをいかにして仮想現実に実装するかである。

Note: The relation between name and indicative object is a pioneering achievement of L. Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Since Wittgenstein's logic in the Logico-Philosophical Treatise is identical to Scheffer's strokes, I believe that the two men must have intuitively understood the logic of the Gengo from some route held by the Tendai sect and made it one of the foundations of modern logic. The logic of the Gengo is 'one/(one/one)', but Bertrand Russell pointed out in 1919 in 'Introduction to mathematical philosophy' that t/(t/t) is a special case of p/(r/q). Russell had constructed the type theory on which computer languages are based, while Baien had almost completed his mapping theory of global ecology in the mid-Edo period. The challenge for the future is how to implement this in virtual reality.



15732-33:If the reader wishes to understand the one-to-one correspondence between name and object in detail, it is necessary to search for the object's Incompatible twin events and those of the name and see there a chain of complete binary tree structure.

15734:  故言気。則有気物。気体。気形。気質。気象。天気。心気。気色之類。

15734:  だから非物質を意味する文字「気」は、気体や水圏や気象や人の心や気分など、いろいろな指示対象を持っている。

15734:  So the character '気', which means non-material, has various directing objects, such as gas, hydrosphere, weather, human mind and mood.

15735:  言神。則有天神。本神。神物。神霊。鬼神。神人。聖神之類。

15735:  活動性を意味する文字「神」には、範疇に対する活動性、持続性に対する活動性、霊性に対する理性、不確定事象に対する応答可能性、神々に対する人間、聖なるものに対する意識などを意味している。

15735:  The letter '神', meaning activity, signifies activity against types, activity against persistence, reason against spirituality, responsiveness against indeterminate events, man against gods, consciousness against the sacred, etc.

15736:  言天。則有天地。天神。天物。天人。天命之類。

15736:  範疇を意味する文字「天」には、天地の天、天神の天、天物の天、天人の天、天命の天などがある。

15736:  The character '天', meaning category, refers to heaven in heaven and earth, category in category and activity, celestial in celestial and earth, objectivity in objectivity and subjectivity, nature in nature and life, etc.



15737-38:Directions on a celestial scale are said to be east, north, south, east and west, and also on the earth plane. The letters are the same, but the objects they refer to are different.



15739-42:If the object of its indication is not clarified by Incompatible twin events, the recognition is erroneous. Even if we separate immaterial and material by concepts, there are immaterial and material in the lifeworld, in the celestial sphere and in individual natural objects, and the directed objects are all separate.



15743-47:So immaterial matter is the space-time domain and material matter is the celestial domain, but the space-time domain has a heaven-earth structure, the celestial domain has a heaven-earth structure, the sky has a heaven-earth structure and the earth has a heaven-earth structure.



15748-49:This is the case wherever we look in the global environmental world. So in the relationship between name and indicated object, it is necessary to clearly recognise Incompatible twin events and to clearly recognise the indicated object, which is muddled in our lived experience.



15750-51:Once it is clear that the global environmental world is made up of Incompatible twin events, there can be no mistake in the perception of the indicated object. There will be no mistakes in the use of language.



15752-55:So the brightness of the flame is bright against darkness, but dark compared to the brightness of a raging fire. The flame of a candle is bright against darkness.

注: ここでは明るさが相対的なものであることについて語られているが、梅園は全ての存在が相対的な関係にあることを炎を例にして示している。

Note: Here, brightness is spoken of as relative, and Baien uses the example of a flame to show that all beings are in a relative relationship.



15756-57:If we divide the domain into the rotational domain of the celestial sphere and the gravitational domain of the earth, the former is a water-free domain and the latter is a water-containing domain. The latter is further divided into the atmosphere and water as a liquid.



15758-59:Astronomical phenomena include diurnal motion, which has a direct impact on life, and large-scale phenomena, with annual motion as the smallest unit. The latter can be further divided as Incompatible twin events into starlight and cosmic darkness.



15760-61:The moon is an astronomical phenomenon, but sometimes treated like a meteorological phenomenon. Water is an earthly entity, but sometimes treated like a gas. A dog is smaller than a cow but larger than a rat.



15762-63:Do not be misled by the fact that the worm is shorter than the snake but longer than the leech, and that the west seen from the house of the east is the east seen from the house of the west. All relations between beings are thus relative.



15764-65:Whenever people recognise things, they give them names. Some people give them one name, others another. This is why names are more common than things.



15766-67:Although this is so, the object strictly exists and is a common object of human perception. In contrast, immaterial objects are atypical and cannot be held in the hand.



15768-70:If it is not a sensory ruling, it cannot be recognised. If it cannot be recognised, it cannot be named. This is why there are few immaterial names. However, the complete binary trees that produce Incompatible twin events clearly exist prior to recognition, although they are invisible.



15771-72:And if I could recognise its obvious presence but had not given it a name, I was obliged to name it myself.(The following sentence is omitted as it cannot be translated into English).



15773-74:There is cosmic darkness against the sun and atmosphere against water. Although our predecessors did not name them, it is clear that they exist in terms of counter-events according to the principle of incompatibility.



15775-76:I don't want to give it a new name, but I can't find the word in the classics, so I have to name it anew. I did not stick to the established theories or old readings, but gave a new name to the object according to the principle of incompatibility.



15777-78:Historical philosophers have yet to clarify the principle of incompatibility. They have disturbed the truth by establishing similar theories. So they have made the cube and the sphere diametrically opposed, and the moon and the sun diametrically opposed.



15779-80:This is because they do not yet know the relationship between reasonability and unreasonability by the principle of incompatibility. Therefore, for the celestial plane, I have named the infinite group of radial lines extending from the earth's own centre as incompatible twin events, and for the sun, I have given a new name to the cosmic blackness as incompatible twin events.

15781:  木者。与草相為植。対鳥獣之動。

15781:  樹木は草とともに植物相を形成し、鳥や動物などの動物相と地上のにおける排反対事象となる。

15781:  Trees, together with grasses, form the flora, which is incompatible twin events on the ground with fauna such as birds and animals.



15782-83:White is the colour of the sun and the colour to the darkness of the universe. Red is the colour for blue, which is created when black and white mix and come into contact with brightness.

注: 色彩に関するこの記述はゲーテの色彩論に通じるものがある。つまり色の存在場所と色を分離させないのだ。ニュートンの色彩論によって我々は液晶やプロジェクターによって自由に色彩を表現できるようになった。しかし、国際宇宙ステーションから地球を見た場合、この色彩論が正しいことが分かる。我々が仮想現実において宇宙からの地球映像を見ることが出来るのはニュートンの色彩論の技術的応用である。色彩理論に関して言えば、梅園はゲーテと同じくニュートンを補完すべく生まれた思想家である。

Note: This description of colour is in keeping with Goethe's theory of colour. In other words, it does not separate colour from its place of existence. Newton's colour theory has enabled us to express colours freely with liquid crystals and projectors. However, when we look at the Earth from the International Space Station, we can see that this colour theory is correct. It is a technological application of Newton's colour theory that we can see images of the Earth from space in virtual reality. As far as colour theory is concerned, Baien, like Goethe, was a thinker born to complement Newton.



15784-85:In the Theory of Yin-Yang and the Five Elements, opposing wood to gold and red to black does not follow the principle of incompatibility. Correctly, in yin and yang, the right is yang and the left is yin.



15786-87:In red and white, white, the colour of the sun, is yang and red, the colour of the morning glow and the evening glow, is yin. In the distinction between internal organs, hollow organs are yang and parenchymal organs are yin.



15788-89:The world, however, gets this wrong at every turn. Since the world is already constituted by the principle of incompatibility prior to experience, it does not follow the mistakes of the ancients.

15790: ○伯楽使弟子求良馬。弟子散之四方。
15791:  纔見其高踏善鳴者。便以為駿。相共争其良。
15792:  久而不決。一人直走得龍種。見其高踏善鳴而不顧。
15793:  是得其真。而不良不能自I也。
15794:  世之譚天地。論造化。弁是非者。
15795:  不逢其真。以自得者為是。
15796:  窺窬立準。使人拠之。非取準於天地也。


15790-96:Bo Le ordered his apprentices to find a good horse, but for a long time the argument about good or bad was not settled because everyone brought a horse that was a little better than the others. One of the apprentices suddenly ran out and brought a wonderful horse. It was not a discussion because it was not comparable to a horse that was only slightly better. (Brief for English translation).



15797-98:Each person who does not know the truth argues to his/her heart's content. That is understandable. In their own way, sharp arguments mislead people. Theories such as Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, School of Names, and Legalism are in the same category. (Brief for English translation)



15799-01:However, the yin and yang produced by the principle of incompatibility cannot exist without one another and the other. The incompatible twin events are a priori constitutive principles of existence. It is up to people's subjective perception to arrange these on their own.

15802:  天地安知彼之配。是以。男女。偶也。夫婦。配也。

15802:  自己構成原理によって成り立っている地球環境世界がどうして人間の勝手な推理推論に姿を現すことがあろうか? だから、男女は排反対事象だが、夫婦は人間が勝手に行う配列である。

15802:  How can the global environmental world, which is founded on a self-constituting principle, ever reveal itself to man's self-serving deductive reasoning? Therefore, men and women are incompatible twin events, but married couples are an arrangement that humans make on their own.



15805-08:A man and a woman becoming husband and wife is a good example of a combination. Even though it is good, it is still a human act, and they may be separated for various reasons. However, the male-female pair remains the same. This is the difference between a priori and artificial configurations. Even a combination of a good man and a good woman can lead to separation. It goes without saying that a combination of an ungood man and an ungood woman will result in a separation.



15809-11:The Five Elements theory collects all things and divides them into five. According to their theory, East corresponds to wood, West to gold, East to blue and West to white. This is a muddled argument between subjective and objective.



15812-13:In this book, East is East, Tree is Tree, West is West and White is White. In this way, the name and the indicated object will match. If the name and the indicated object correspond one-to-one, there is no mistake.

注: ここで梅園が名前と指示対象の一対一対応に気づいていることが分かる。さらに『玄語』の図や文がシンメトリカルに書かれていることを見れば、梅園がヴィトゲンシュタインが「論理哲学論考」(初版1922)より遥かに早く写像理論に気づき、かつ、ほぼ完成させていたことが分かる。つまり、ひとつの事実とひとつの言語は鏡のように一対一の対応関係が成り立っていることをここで書いているのだ。梅園が実在の論理的映像を実際に描けたのは使っていた文字が象形文字である漢字だったからである。この事実に気づいた人が、日本国政府に『梅園全集』上下巻の出版と各国図書館への寄贈を要請したのが真実の歴史的経由であろうと思う。

『梅園全集』の出版が1912年、シェファーのストローク関数に関する論文の発表が1913年、論理哲学論考の着想と執筆が第一次世界大戦従軍中の1918年であるというのは、歴史的経緯として非常に興味深い。なおチャールズ・サンダース・パース(1839-1914)は、シェファーより30年も早く双否定(joint denial)を見えない演算子で表記することを発案している。これは彼が日本と縁の深いペンシルバニアに住んでいたことと関係していると思われる。

しかし、それならば梅園はそれより100年以上も早くそれを考案しほぼ完成した体系にしている。「天地」は(天/地)であって、天を見ているときには地は見えず、地を見ているときには天は見えない。すべての語とすべての文がそうなっている。ルビンの壺の顔と壺を(顔/壺)と書いても良いし、見えない演算子を使って(顔壺)と書いても良い。しかし、ルビンの壺を知らずにそれを理解できるだろうか? ルビンの壺のどこに演算子があるだろうか?

Note: Here we can see that Baien was aware of the one-to-one correspondence between name and indicated object. Furthermore, the symmetrical nature of the diagrams and sentences in Gengo shows that Baien had realised and almost completed the theory of mapping far earlier than Wittgenstein. In other words, he is writing here that a one-to-one correspondence between one fact and one word is established like a mirror. Baien was able to depict real logical images because the characters he used were hieroglyphic Chinese characters.

I believe that the true historical route to this fact is that those who realised this fact requested the Japanese Government to publish the first and second volumes of Baien's complete works and to donate them to libraries in various countries.

It is of great historical interest to note that The Complete Works of Baien was published in 1912, Scheffer's paper on stroke functions was published in 1913, and the Philosophy of Logic essay was conceived and written in 1918, during his service in World War I. Charles Saunders Purse (1839-1914), 30 years before Scheffer, invented the use of invisible operators to denote joint negatives. This may be related to the fact that he lived in Pennsylvania, which has close ties to Japan.

However, Baien devised it more than 100 years earlier, and made it into a nearly complete system. 'Heaven and earth' is (heaven/earth); when you look at heaven, you cannot see the earth, and when you look at earth, you cannot see heaven. Every word and every sentence does so. You can write the face and vase of the Rubin vase as (face/vase), or you can use the invisible operator to write (face jar). But how can you understand that without knowing what a Rubin vase is? Where in the Rubin vase would you find the operator?



15814-17:According to subjective judgements, we err in our perceptions. That is why by studying we create a wall of perception between us and nature. So if we want to know why the things that make up nature are the way they are, it is important to recognise water as water, fire as fire, subtle things as subtle things and intelligible things as intelligible things. We must not recognise symmetry by likening it to other things.

15818:  宜以対待而反観。宜就一一而剖析。

15818:  排反性の原理による対応関係を見出し、それを完全二分木構造に配置して一対のものの組み合わせに分けていく必要がある。

15818:  It is necessary to find correspondences based on the principle of incompatibility and place them in a complete binary tree structure to divide them into pairs of things.



15819-20:I am a shallow learner, but I see the underlying logic here. I am confidently committed to it because there is a corresponding phenomenon in this global environmental world.

15821:  徴在天地者。何邪。今嘗挙語問人〉

15821:  対応する現象がこの地球環境世界にあるとはどういう意味だろうか。試みにある命題を取り上げて誰かに尋ねてみることにする。

15821:  What does it mean that the corresponding phenomenon exists in this global environmental world? I will take a proposition on trial and ask someone else.



15822-24:If I make the proposition that it is the shadow of the earth that makes the world night, one will get in reply the proposition that it is the sun that makes the earth day and reveals its substance.

15825:  既探得其主。影之体。具其人。

15825:  これによってその人は昼の排反対事象である夜の正しい姿を知ったのだ。

15825:  By doing this, the person learned the correct form of night, which is the incompatible twin event of day.



15826-27:I also raise one of the counter-events and ask. This is water condensing in winter and falling slowly from the sky. What is this opposite event?

15828:  彼将挙半答之。夏而火之発》而自地升天者》既探得其主。

15828:  彼はこの問いに答えて言うだろう。それは、夏に火が発出して大地から空に向けて一瞬にして昇るものだと。

15828:  He would say in answer to this question. That it is a fire emanating in summer and rising in an instant from the ground to the sky.



15830-31:Thus, that person has recognised the natural phenomenon of lightning as incompatible twin events. Thus, if I raise one of the natural phenomena of yin, others will know one of the natural phenomena of yang. This is because incompatible twin events exist in nature.

注: 日本では、雷は落ちる思われているが実際には昇るものである。つまり地上からの放電現象である。日本人は「雷が落ちる」という言葉に惑わされている。

Note: In Japan, lightning is thought to fall but actually rises. In other words, it is an electrical discharge phenomenon from the ground. Japanese are misled by the word "fall".

15832: ○雖徴果在天地。而條理之道微矣。豈易言焉哉。

15832: ○確かな現象が存在しているとは言っても、排反性の原理による自然の構成は微細を極めているから、容易く語れるものではない。

15832:  Even though there are certain phenomena, the constitution of nature according to the principle of incompatibility is so minute that it cannot be easily described.

注: このサイトの製作者は素粒子の粒子性と波動性、素粒子の対発生・対消滅・四次元時空連続体・量子エンタングルメント・生命活動その他まで含めて排反性の原理に従った自然現象だと考えている。

Note: The creators of this website consider the particle and wave nature of elementary particles, including their pairing generation and annihilation, four-dimensional space-time continuum, quantum entanglement, biological activity and others, to be natural phenomena according to the principle of incompatibility.



15833-34:I am not the Creator, so I cannot master the rules. If I cannot master it, can I rely on this book? However, the principle of incompatibility is the absolute criterion of world perception.



15835-37:If there is something I do not understand and do not recognise, it is because I have not yet encountered the truth. If someone corrects my error by the principle of incompatibility, then this world will not protect my uncertainty. The truth of a proposition is only determined by the principle of incompatibility.

15840:  聖人復起。豈得易之哉。是以。是非之道。取捨之行。幽明之途。善悪之性。門設戸張。千古不了。條理之不講也。

15840:  聖人と言われる人が再び現れても、その真理を変えることはできない。だから、是非善悪を論じて学派を作って千年以上になるけれども未だに決着しないのは、排反性の原理によって世界と人間を論じていないからである。

15840:  Even if the saints appear again, they cannot change the truth. Therefore, the reason why the schools of thought on right and wrong have not yet been settled after more than a thousand years of discussion is that they do not discuss the world and human beings according to the principle of incompatibility.



15841-42:When the principle of incompatibility is established, the global environmental world becomes like a brocade fabric. It is a beautiful world with clouds flowing and mists rising, phoenixes dancing and flowers blooming, and it is an overwhelmingly beautiful world.



15843-45:The vertical and horizontal series of the global environmental world have a root logic that must be so. Nothing can escape the power of the design that makes this world what it is. If you understand this, you will know that fire can be extinguished by immersion in water, that fish cannot fly, that rivers run deep, and that there are shores on both sides.



15846-47:This is why there are binary trees and pairs in the diagram, but some people may criticise the worldview based on the principle of incompatibility because of preconceptions about what they have learnt so far.

15848:  所謂是亦一無窮。非亦一無窮。而亦物之所以有偶也。

15848:  これを肯定して世界の果てまで行き、また否定して世界の果てまで行ったとしても、果であることにおいては同じである。それもまた排反性の原理による出来事なのだろう。

15848:  Even if one affirms this and goes to the end of the world, and even if one denies it and goes to the end of the world, it is the same in being the end. That too would be an event according to the principle of incompatibility.



15850-81:Gengo has already been written. It is the logical picture of the global environmental world. The Zeigo is useless from the point of view of the Gengo.



15852-53:To those who read enough Gengo, Zeigo is like a wart. The global environmental world already exists in this way; Gengo is as much a wart as Zeigo because it is not a product of the principle of incompatibility.

注: 梅園がここで言おうとしてることは、ヴィトゲンシュタインが論理哲学論考の命題6.54で語ったことがら、すなわち「梯子を登ってしまったらそれを抛棄しなければならない」ということと同じである。ただし、それはすでにショーペンハウアーが書いていたことであり、それは既に莊子が魚や兎を取るための罠を例にして紀元前3世紀に書いていたことであり、同様の事は仏典にも書かれている。梅園は莊子の言葉をそのまま引用して「玄語」は世界理解にとっての手がかりに過ぎず、世界を正しく理解したら無駄なものだと書いている。

Note: What Baien is trying to say here is the same as what Wittgenstein writen in Proposition 6.54 of the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus: 'He must, so to speak, throw away the ladder after he has climbed up it. But that was already written by Schopenhauer, and by Zhuang Zhou in the third century BC, using the example of traps for catching fish and rabbits. Similar things are written in Buddhist scriptures. Baien quotes Zhuang Zhou as saying that Gengo is only a clue to understanding the world and is useless once the world is properly understood.



15854-55:Those who observe the world adequately do not need to read the Gengo. However, if one observes it correctly, it is clear that there is a principle of incompatibility. But as yet people have not discussed this.



15856-58:In my opinion, even those who observe the world correctly should not rule out this book. It is right to do so. Zeigo should also be consulted; although Zeigo is an afterthought that accompanies Gengo, it also contains the content of Gengo.



15859-60:Ethics and morality have been considered without omission in every detail since the establishment of the system of officials. Medicine has become the standard medical treatment with Huangdi Neijing being practised.



15861-64:However, even though they are equipped with ethics and morality, and even though the structure of the body has been revealed, they do not depend on the principle of incompatibility.



15865-67:That is why I did not write about ethics and morality and the structure of the body in Gengo, but wrote more about it in Zeigo. Even if a human being thinks he has studied this world and has a vision of the world, he is still only one of the humans in this world.



15868-69:If we abandon human existence and look outside of ethics and morality, we are left with an emptiness. So I also wrote about ethics and morality. That is Kango. These three works complete my system.

注: 『敢語』はその名の通り「敢えて語る」もので、江戸時代においては異端の道徳論・政治論であった。行政機構である徳川幕藩体制下にあって、天皇を中心とした国家を作るべきだということを、地球の中心軸がひとつであることになぞらえて書いている。そのため江戸の学者からは「机の上に置くのも汚らわしい」言われたほどの激論であったが、これが明治維新の先駆けとなる思想のひとつであったことは疑いを入れない。

Note: Kango, as the name suggests, 'dared to speak', was a heretical moral and political theory in the Edo period. He wrote that under the Tokugawa shogunate system, an administrative structure, a state should be created with the emperor at its centre, likening it to the earth having a single own centre. It was such a heated debate that scholars in Edo (present-day Tokyo) said it was "too dirty to even put on a desk", but there is no doubt that it was one of the ideas that ushered in the Meiji Restoration.



15870-71:Gengo does not use the language of its predecessors; Zeigo and Kango criticise or endorse the theories of previous scholars. This was not done by Gengo, but by Zeigo and Kango.



15872-74:So my system of thought can only be understood by reading these three works together. Quotations may be in full text, quoted in abbreviated form or taken only in meaning. Sources may or may not be given.



15875-77:In some cases, I have also interspersed quotations within my text, and I ask for forgiveness if the text has lost its original meaning. However, erudite people will laugh at my quotations from the classics and my interpretations of many theories.



15878-79:○The global environmental world is vast. It is not something that can be written about at all. So anyone reading this book should first understand the principle of incompatibility and the relationship between sets and elements.



15880-81:For example, taking fire as an example, thunder, lightning, shooting stars and meteor showers all belong to fire, and taking horses as an example, sheep, deer, camels and whitetail deer all belong to horses.



15882-85:The reader should also be sure to know that light or heavy, floating or sinking are events between the sky and the earth; odd or even, many or few are numerical events; time, space or celestial, presence or absence are events in observable space; and long or short, large or small are events in measurable things should be known.



15886-89:In this way, the relationship between sets and their elements can be understood. The earth condenses, the atmosphere diffuses, the sun collects heat and emits light. Names have objects to which they refer. Each event integrates a subordinate event. Not all the lowest events are properly classified.


15890:  地球環境世界を構成する諸事象と諸存在を見れば、それらが何に由来する存在であるのかは排反性の原理によって明らかであり、どんな微細なものでも範疇の何処かに所属する。

15890:  Looking at the phenomena and beings that make up the global environmental world, it is clear from the principle of incompatibility what they are derived from, and any minute thing belongs somewhere in the types.



15891-92:Furthermore, this world exists objectively as this world, and it is man who observes and discusses it. Only human beings confront the world and discuss it with their own observational capacity and intelligence.

注: この行で梅園が表明していることはカント(1724-1804)が『純粋理性批判』の中で定義した「物自体」によく似ている。梅園は1723年に生まれ1789年に没している。両者の影響関係は指摘されていないが、梅園とデカルトにおける近代的懐疑主義の驚くべき類似点は末木剛博(1921-2007)によって既に論じられている。近代ヨーロッパと江戸日本の思想には共通点がいくつか挙げられるが、カントのいう「物自体」とこの行における梅園の記述はそのひとつであると思われる。情報の伝達経路は東インド会社と出島である。長崎奉行から徳川幕府への報告書の研究は戦前には為されていたが、太平洋戦争の後はまったく忘れられてしまった。今後の研究課題である。

Note: What Baien expresses in these lines is very similar to the 'thing-in-itself' defined by Kant (1724-1804) in his Critique of Pure Reason. Baien was born in 1723 and died in 1789. The striking similarities between modern scepticism in Baien and Descartes have already been discussed by Takehiro Sueki (1921-2007), although the influence relationship between the two has not been noted. Some similarities can be identified between modern European and Edo Japanese thought, and Kant's reference to 'thing-in-itself' and Baien's description in these lines seems to be one of them. The channels of information transmission were the East India Company and Dejima. research on reports from the Nagasaki Magistrate to the Tokugawa Shogunate was conducted before the Pacific War, but was completely forgotten after the Pacific War(1941-1945). This is a subject for future research.



15893-95:It is the conscious human being that can be aware of the ego. The human being and the objective world are entities separated by the principle of incompatibility. The only difference between them is whether they are conscious or not.



15896-97:Without clarity on the existence of consciousness, all human perception falls into subjective analogy. That is why words and propositions are necessary. Words and propositions are established between subjectivity and objectivity.



15898-01:To be born, to live, to pass and to be blocked is for nature to decide. It is for man to decide whether to live, to kill, to give or to take away. From the self-interest of man, who puts himself first, we observe the fairness of nature, and from nature's natural behaviour, we distinguish the actions of man.



15902-05:Types domain and activity are incompatible twin events, and human activity and failure are incompatible twin events. In the human domain, living or dying, waking or sleeping are natural phenomena, but carrying, using, operating and doing are according to human intention. This is a testimony to the difference between man and nature.

15906:  是以。悦怨。得於天之徳也。

15906:  そうであるから、喜びも恨みも地球環境世界の写し絵である限りにおいて人の徳となる。

15906:  As such, both joy and resentment become human virtues insofar as they are copy pictures of the global environmental world.



15907-09:The moral code is the path one should follow as a person, learning and courtesy are what one should learn, and honour and disgrace are the consequences of one's deeds.

15910:  苟不触類推之。引而伸之。紛若事物。非言之可尽也。

15910:  かりそめにもそれらと関係しそうな事柄だと感ずれば、それから推理して古来の教えと関係づけなければ、物事は複雑すぎるから言葉で表現することは困難である。

15910:  If you have the slightest inkling that a matter is related to them, you have to deduce from it and relate it to the ancient teachings, because things are too complex to be expressed in words.



15912-13:Where there is a person, there is always a language. Where there is language, there is always a name. If you think about it, the names of things in our country are not words borrowed from the West.

15914-16:蓋漢字之入我。国史以為創於 応神之朝。然山海経而下。論衡有出鬱之事。魏史有通書之文。則其来旧矣。


15914-16:I think Chinese characters came to our country a long time ago, according to Japanese history books such as Classic of Mountains and Seas, Lunheng, Cao Wei History and the writings of Zhou Dunyi.



15917-18:The difference between the Japanese language and the Han Chinese language is that the Han Chinese language gives one meaning to each sound and conveys the meaning of a sentence by placing the subject and predicate above and below it, whereas the Japanese language does not give meaning to sounds and expresses a single meaning by combining several sounds.



15919-21:The Japanese language also conveys the meaning of a sentence by changing and transforming its sounds. In Japan, kanji characters are used as they are and the Japanese sounds are applied to them.



15922-80:The commentary during this period is about Japanese and Chinese terms and usage, and is therefore omitted.



15981-83:Japanese names are indicated by double lines. Classification according to the principle of incompatibility has not yet been discussed. They are simply named as they see fit. Because it is a subjective classification, it is not yet correspond to the principle of incompatibility.



15984-85:The work of this work is on the classification of the natural world according to the principle of incompatibility. This may sound sloppy, but in the absence of existing names, newly coined terms were used to name them. The classification followed only the principle of incompatibility.



15986-87:Stars like the sun are the stellar groups of the celestial sphere, while stars like the moon are the planetary groups. The distinction between years and ages is stated in the notes to the Rites of Zhou as follows.



15988-90:This line refers to the lunar calendar of the Edo period, so please refer to the Rites of Zhou.



15991-92:Hence, the sun's rounding of the ecliptic is called an age, and the moon's twelve phases are called a year.



15993-95:Grasses and trees are classified as plants. Those that are soft, small and die within a year are called grasses. Those that are stiff, large and bloom and die over the years are called trees.



15996-97:Despite these differences, grass and trees are the basic forms of plants. In contrast, vines are plants that differ from these basic forms.



15998-99:Plants include herbaceous and woody plants whose basic form is their branches and trunks, as well as the variant vines.



16000-02:The basic forms of plants are herbaceous and woody, but no such classification can be established for ivy. Therefore, herbaceous plants and ivy have to be considered as separate.



16003-04:There are two types of insects: flying and non-flying. Those that fly are named flying insects and those that do not fly are named non-flying insects. Fungi are divided into hard and soft ones, the soft ones being designated mushrooms and the hard ones being designated sarcopterygians.



16005-06:Terrestrial organisms include birds, beasts, herbaceous plants and woody plants, while underwater organisms include scaled and unscaled plants, aquatic plants and corals.



16007-08:Small entities on the surface of the earth that are solid and stationary include metals, rocks, sediment and rock salt, while those that move include spirals, bivalves, turtles and crabs.



16009-10:Although the naming was done by me personally, such a classification of the various entities of nature is done by the principle of incompatibility.

16011:  質者〉雨水土石艸木之類》有実体之称也〉象者》日月雲煙之類》無実体之称也》

16011:  「質 shitsu」とは、雨・水・土・石・植物・動物など、地表にあって水を含み、かつ、定まった形を持つものを言い、「象 shou」とは、太陽の光・月の光・雲・煙など、地表から離れて存在し、かつ定まった形を持たないものを言う。

16011:  The term '質 shitsu' refers to things such as rain, water, soil, stones, plants and animals that are on the surface of the earth, contain water and have a definite shape, while '象 shou' refers to things such as sunlight, moonlight, clouds and smoke that exist away from the surface of the earth and have no definite shape.

注: 動植分合総図にかかれているものは全て「質」に属する。持中天地図とともに参照しないとこの文は理解できない。大切なことは研究者は中心においたドメインからさらに二分木を成長させることが出来るということだ。それはプログラムによって可能である。ただし、それは現実に存在するものと一対一に対応しなければならない。

Note: This statement cannot be understood without reference to this diagram and this diagram.What is important is that researchers can grow further binary trees from the domain they have centred on. This is possible through programming. However, it must correspond one-to-one with what exists in reality.



16013-15:The name "form" is a unifying name for a) a group of radial lines beginning at the center of the earth and extending to the celestial sphere, b) a concentric sphere also beginning at the center of the earth and having the celestial sphere as its largest size, c) a mass in various entities on the surface of the earth near its own centre, and d) a branching off. Body" is the unifying name for four entities: a) empty, as in outer space; b) fruition, as in the ground; c) unchanging, as in the rotational orbit of the celestial sphere; and d) constantly changing, as in meteorological phenomena.



16016-17:The classifications of space, time, the covering sky and the carrying earth, the categories and the activity in the categories, the retention of identity and the activity in the time of retention, etc., may seem arbitrary to me, but the symmetries they direct are classified according to the principle of incompatibility. So even if they have the same name, the symmetries they direct may be different.



16018-136:The English translation will be made after the full text is finished, although it is very interesting as a description of this book written in the mid-Edo period.

inserted by FC2 system inserted by FC2 system