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"The figure of Space and Time"

The word "宇宙" means the 'universe' in modern Japanese. Almost all Japanese researchers understand it in the contemporary sense. However, as you can easily see from the characters "宇" and "宙", they are a pair of words with both opposite and complementary meanings.

The former means space, and the latter means time. That also reflects the Tendai duality philosophy brought by the monk Ninmon. BAIEN thought that space and time are twin fields that encompass the entire universe. Space "宇" provides the place of existence to everything in the area, and Time "宙" is the field of change for all of them.

If there was no field of time, the universe would be a magnificent panorama, and if there was no field of space, the world would have only chaotic changes that had no shape. In either case, we would not be able to recognize the world. In the former case, we would be part of the panorama, and we would disappear into the chaos in the latter case.

BAIEN reached this recognition in the 1770s. However, almost all researchers did not understand the duality of time and space. They have mistakenly understood "宇" and "宙" as the meaning of 'universe.' Because they think that the two opposite and, at the sam time, complementary meanings words as one language, "宇宙" which means the universe in modern Japanese.

The term "没" in the center circle means non-material existence. However, the word "没"which means "non-materials" is located in the material domain. So, this word indicates that it is a non-material domain in the material domain. Consequently, the term "没" here means space, orbit, past, future, directions, and so on. Those are all non-material concepts.

In other words, BAIEN thought space-domain itself is just a field, and the time-domain itself is also only a field. And the space-domain gives each place to all existence, and the time-domain gives all changes to all of them. Since it has various attributes such as trajectory, direction, position, past, present, and future, he thought it was not wholly non-material.

There are "緯" on the left side of "没" and "経" on the right side. BAIEN compares "経" to the warp of cloth and "緯" to its weft. He might also have compared the two words to the river flow and the spread of the river to the shores on both side. Let's use the metaphor of the river here.

Suppose both banks of the river are infinitely far.The flow is "経," and both banks are "緯," and the infinitely large spread between the both banks can correspond to space. In this metaphor, the river flow is the time to change the entire universe, and space is the infinite spread which wraps all existences.

What is important here is that BAIEN's Holonic Dual Path System has "経" and "緯" as superordinate concepts of time and space. BAIEN had already created a system with time and space as subordinate concepts in the 1770s.

The "時" and "通" in the right circle indicate the character of "宙". In simple terms, "時" is time, and "通" is time flow. "處" and "塞" in the circle on the left indicate the character of "宇" which means the space. "處" indicates the place where objects exist.

場としての時間 計りうる時間 過去現在未来を通じる 空間のイメージ 場所のイメージ 宇宙の空間 非物体 縦 横

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