多賀墨郷君に答ふる書 Reply to Taga
多賀墨郷君に答ふる書
Reply to Taga

岩田憲明氏(故人)のHPから

以下のテキストおよび玄語図は梅園研究所のご好意でコピーさせて頂いたもの である。原文は句読点、濁点、パラグラフなどのない書簡形式であるが、これ までの研究者の成果を利用してテキストを編集した。なお、カッコの中のカタ カナは読みであり、漢字および平仮名は説明である。たとえば混淪(コンリン) や貪着(頓着)がその例である。原則として現代仮名遣いおよび常用漢字に置き 換えてあるが、自筆本と比較し易いようにできるだけ原本の漢字をイメージで 与えている。クリックにより見ることができる。見出し、解釈、読み、などの 多くは岩波文庫の三浦梅園自然哲学論集に従っている。感謝したい。*をクリ ックすることにより本書内の関連部位を参照するようにし、数は多くないが関 連する玄語図も加えてみた。[1]....[25]は自筆本のPDFページの開始位置であ る。英文および段落の設定は Dr. Rosemary Mercer (Asian Studies Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, NZ)によるものである。本ウェブへの掲 載を許可くださったご好意に感謝したい。彼女の英文は読みやすく、日本人も 英文で読むことにより本書を理解できると考えて掲載した。        


多賀墨卿君にこたふる書

REPLY TO TAGA BOKKEI by Miura Susumu


習気を払拭すべきこと

[1]混淪(コンリン)鬱浡(ウツボツ)の義、お尋ね御座候。夫れ、人は天地を宅 とし、居るものに候えば、天地は学者の最先講ずべきことに御座候。

You ask me the meaning of "chaotic content and dynamic flux", and indeed, as heaven-and-earth is the house of man, scholars should make heaven-and-earth the first object of their study.

尤も、天文地理、天行の推歩は、西学入りして、段々精密にいたり候えども、 それはそれ切りにして、天地の條理(*)にいたりては、今に徹底と存ずる人も 承らず候。かく広き世の中に、かく悠久の年月をかさね、かく数限りなき人の 思慮を費やし、日夜に示して隠すことなき天地を、何ゆえに看得る人のなきと なれば、生まれて智なき始めより、ただ見なれ聞きなれ、触れなれ、何となし に癖つきてこれが己が泥(ナズ)みとなり、物を怪しみいぶかる心、萌さず 候。

It is true that since the introduction of Western science the calendrical studies of astronomy, geography, and the motions of the heavenly bodies have been studied with more and more precision, but that is all there is to it. To my knowledge not one scholar has had a deep knowledge of the jori of heaven and earth.Throughout the whole wide world and the infinity of ages past, countless people have pondered over heaven and earth. Heaven and earth are not concealed, but before us day and night, so how is it that no-one has seen them clearly? It is simply because from the moment we are born we unwittingly accustom ourselves to what we see, hear and touch, confining ourselves by habits of thought, and we do not come to doubt or question things.

泥みとは、所執の念にして、仏氏にいわゆる習気(ジッケ)にて候。習気とれ申 さず候わば、何分、心のはたらき出来たらず候。阿難はさとられしかども、前 世猿にて有しゆえ、猿の習気やまざりしと申し候。これよきたとえに候。

These attachments are the fixations of mind that Buddhists call "jikke". If they are not removed, the function of the mind is impeded. Ananda had received enlightenment, but because he had been a monkey in his previous life, he retained the jikke of a monkey. That is a good allegory.

とかく人は人の心を以て、物を思惟分別するゆえに人を執することやみがた く、古今明哲の輩も、この習気になやまされ、人を以て天地万物をぬりまわ し、達観の眼は開きがたく候。其の習気とは、人は行く事をば足にてなし、拵 ゆる事をば手にてなすゆえ、運歩作用に手足の習気これあり。さる程に、蛇の 足なく、魚の手なき、どうやら不自由に思われ候。

For insofar as human beings analyse and speculate about phenomena with human minds, it is difficult for us to give up our human prejudices. Past and present thinkers alike have been affected by these attachments,they have painted the manifold things of heaven and earth with their human colours. It is not easy to open our eyes wide and see with far-sightedness. Let us consider these attachments. Because human beings walk with their feet, and grasp things with their hands, attachments of thought could lead people to believe that the motions of heaven and creations of nature also require feet and hands. It could even force them to think that snakes which have no feet, and fish which have no hands, are deficient or handicapped.

天は足なくして日夜にめぐり、造化(自然)は手なくして華をさかせ、子を給 わせ、[2]魚をもつくり鳥をもつくり出し候。もし己れに執するところ有り候え ば、其の運転造化、甚だあやしむべき事に候。あやしむべき事にして、あやし む人もなき候は、これも朝暮に見なれ、空々として貪着(頓着)なしに打ち過ぎ るにて候。

Without feet, heaven turns day and night; without hands, natural creation makes flowers bloom, provides us with children, and brings forth fish and birds. If indeed we are so confined within ourselves, celestial revolutions and natural creations should be objects of great curiosity. Although our curiosity should be aroused about certain things, no-one questions them, because we see them before us from morning to evening, passing them by with total unconcern.

物の上よりして見るときは、天地も一物にして、水火もかく一物、草木鳥獣も 各一物、我となり人となるも、各一物にて候。それを人には人癖つき候て、我 にあるものを推して他を観候。なずみ、やみがたく候。

When one looks at a thing as the thing it is, heaven-and-earth alone is one object, water and fire are each single objects, and plants, trees, fish and animals, as well as human beings, are each independent objects. Ourselves and others alike are each objects. Being human we see things in relation to ourselves, a habit that we cannot readily abandon when we look at other things.

それ故、人の癖には、何にても人になして、見もし思いもし候。子供遊びの絵 本に、鼠の嫁入り、ばけ物づくしなどいうあるをみるに、其の鼠を鼠のままに 致しおき候えば、鼠本来の面目に候を、其の鼠を悉く人になし、婿殿は裃大 小、嫁子は打かけ綿帽子、のり物つらせ、徒士若党すべて人のように成し候。 又、ばけ物の本を見るに、傘の茶臼にばけ、箒の手桶に変じたる図はなし。た だあるとあらゆる物、目鼻手足出来り、とかく人の様なる物に化けざるはな し。涅槃像の図をみるに、その龍王という物は、衣冠正しき人体にて、その本 体の龍形は、火事頭巾かづける様に画きなしぬ。

It is a human habit to think of things and see things always in human terms. Look at a children's picture book about a rats' wedding, or at a book about goblins. The rats are not treated as rats in the form that we have always known them, they are made into human beings in every detail. The bridegroom wears ceremonial robes with a pair of swords, the bride wears a gown with a long veil and rides in a palanquin borne by footmen and soldiers, all in imitation of a human wedding. Again, when we look at a book about goblins, we find no pictures of umbrellas changed into tea mills, or brooms changed into buckets, instead we see goblins with eyes, noses, hands and feet, everything is changed into human form. A picture of Nirvana shows the dragon lord dressed exactly in human clothes, and to indicate his dragon form a helmet is drawn on his head.

かかる心を以て天地を思惟分別する程に、天には上帝、地には堅牢、風の神、 鳴る神なんど、形はさもいやらしく描きぬれども、足を以て身を運び、手を以 て技を出す。さる程に、風は嚢に蓄え、雷は太鼓に声おく。もし、誠に太鼓あ らば、何を以て製するや。もし誠に太鼓あらば何の皮にてはる事にや、[3]いと あやし。もしかからましかば、天も足なくてはゆかれまじ、造化も手なくては 細工出来るまじ。

When people in such a state of mind speculate about heaven and earth they believe there to be a great lord in the heavens. Upon the solid earth they believe that there are gods of wind, thunder, and suchlike, portrayed as hideous in appearance, but moving around on feet, and working with their hands. Wind is stored in a bag, and thunder is sounded from a great drum. If there were really such a bag, how would it have come to be there in the first place? If there were really a great drum, what skin could have been stretched across it? If one were to go on like this, the heavens would not be able to turn without feet, nor could natural creation work without hands.

猶ちかきに引きつけていはば、すべて動物は牝牡(ヒンボ)有りて、草木には 牝牡なし。牝牡なくて生々せざるは、動物の習いにして、牝牡なくても生々に 事欠かざるは、草木の習いなり。己が習いをもちて、己れにあらざる物に押さ ば、いかで其の理に通ずべき。

Furthermore, to take a simple example, animals are all male or female, but plants have no sex. It is the way of animals that they require both male and female to reproduce, and it is the way of plants that they flourish despite the absence of sexes. If we were to think of other things in terms of ourselves, how could we ever understand their ri?

又、譬えをとりていわんに、火に意ありて水を思わんに、水いかがして物を焼 くらん、水いかがして者を燥(カワ)かす覧と、己がかたにある物のみ推し て、かれになき所にもとめ、水も亦、意ありて水にある物を火に求めば、其の 智力を尽し、其の生涯を窮めたりとも知るに益はなかるべし。

To use another allegory, it is as though fire had a mind and thought about water, wondering "How does water burn things, how does it dry them?" thinking always in terms of its own attributes, never being aware of those it lacks. Conversely, if water also had a mind, when it thought about fire it might think about fire in terms of what it lacks itself. The utmost powers of the intellect and the exertions of a lifetime could be of little benefit under such conditions.

「約をいるる事、ユウ(窓)よりす」(分かり易いことから説明する)という事 も候えば、最もさとしやすき物がたり、又ひとつ申すべし。むかし、何れの帝 にてかおわしましけん、堺によき藤あるよしきこし召れ、勅して九重の内に移 し裁しめ給いしに、帝、ある夜の御夢に、いときよらなる女の打ちしおれる気 色して、
    思いきや堺の浦の藤浪の  都の松にかかるべしとは

と、打ちずんずると御覧じて夢さめ給い、花も故郷やおもうとて、ふたたび堺 に返し給いしとぞ。

In accordance with the maxim from I Ching, "Strive to progress by small steps", I shall tell you a simple story.Once upon a time there was a mikado who heard of a beautiful wisteria in Sakai and had it transplanted to his palace garden. One night a beautiful maiden appeared to him in a dream, chanting mournfully "I must return to the beloved wisteria groves of Sakai." He awoke from the dream believing that the flowers were grieving for their homeland, and had the wisteria sent back.

これらの物がたりは、世に多き事なり。草木意なし、夢入るべき物にあらず。 別れては馴れし故郷をしたい、過ぎてはこしかたをおもうは人の心にして、我 が心の動く処、めでたもう花に感じ、常になれて[4]もてあそび給う歌をなしけ る物にして、藤のあずかる処にあらず。あずかる所なき花にも、我が情態をこ れに移せば、花も又、人なり。

It is the movement of the human heart that attributes feelings to flowers, and composes lyrics about the commonplace. Wisteria flowers do not do these things. When we transfer our feelings to flowers which are innocent of them, we make flowers human too.

古来、明哲の輩も、品は異なる事はあれども、この病に坐せられ、人の境に居 りてひとを離るる事あたわず。目の翳障(エイショウ:おおい)をなすなり。さ る故に、なれ癖に貪着(頓着)なく、是れが泥みとなりて、物をあやしみいぶか る心なき故に、一生を醒めるがごとく酔うがごとくにして終わるなり。

From ancient times, even the most outstanding thinkers have suffered such an affliction. Confined in a human world they have not been able to detach themselves from mankind, their sight has been obstructed, their thoughts have been fixed by habit and their minds have not been not prepared to question things. If our minds are not ready to doubt or question, we could quite easily end our days in a state of stupor.

さらば、ものを怪しといぶかる心なくば、なきにしてやむかとおもえばさにも あらず。神鳴り、地震りたりといえば、人ごとに首を捻り、いかなることにや といいののしる。我よりしてこれを観れば、其の雷・地震をあやしむこそあや しけれ。故いかんとなれば、其の人、地動くを怪しみて、地の動かざる故を求 めず、雷鳴る所を疑いて、鳴らざる所をたずねず、これ、空々の見ならずや。 此の故に、皆人のしれたる事とおもうは、生まれて智の萌さざる始めより、見 なれ聞き慣れ、触れなれたる癖つきて、其のしれたるとおもうは、慣れ癖のつ きたる事なり。

Nevertheless, it should not be said that there is nothing which makes people wonder. When they experience thunder or earthquakes, they all shake their heads and wonder what might be happening. But when I watch them do this, I wonder why they wonder about thunder and earthquakes. People wonder why the earth shakes, without enquiring how things are when it does not shake, or they marvel when it thunders, without enquiring how things are when there is no thunder. Doesn't this seem foolish? From the innocent moment of birth, it is inevitable that we should form habits of thought from what we see, hear and touch, but people think they understand these things because they are familiar with them.

我、人に、「石を手に持ちて、手を放せば、地に落つるはいかなる故ぞ」と問 えば、「それは重きによりて下に落つる也、知れたる事也」という。これも其 の人、知りて知れたる事と言うにはあらず。なれくせにて貪着(頓着)なしにし れたるとおもうなり。然ればこれを醒めたるがごとく酔いたるがごとしといわ んも、我が過言にはあらざるべし。

When I ask a person why a stone falls to the ground when it is released from my hand, he says "because it is heavy, everyone knows this". But he does not understand this thing he says he knows. He does not realise that he is speaking from habit, and to all intents he may as well be speaking in a drunken stupor.

此の故に、其の疑いあやしむべきは、変にあらずして常の事也。孔子の[5]「生 を知らず、いずくんぞ死をしらん」とおしえ給うも、この事なり。人々、死後 はいかがなるらん、いかがある覽と怪しめども、見在かくしておる事も、悉く 皆しれざる事なり。俗語にも、前の瀬わたりて後の瀬とこそいえ。しかるに世 の人、前の瀬を置きて後の瀬の事のみおもう。我、怪しむ所なり。しかれば、 石、物いうというとも、それより己が物いうを怪しむべし。枯れ木に花咲きた りというとも、先ず生木に花さく故をたずぬべし。

For it is not strange things that should arouse our curiosity, but everyday things like the falling stone. That is what Confucius means when he asks how we can expect to understand death when we do not understand life. People wonder what will happen to them when they die, yet they do not know how to conduct their present lives. As the saying goes, we cannot cross the next river before we have crossed this one. But people persist in worrying about the next crossing, ignoring the crossing straight before them. It is a mystery to me why they do this. Surely, before wondering whether a stone might speak we should wonder how it is that we ourselves should speak, before wondering whether a dead tree might flower, we should find out why it is that a living tree should flower.

かく物に不審の念をさしはさまば、月日のゆきかえり、造化の推し遷(ウツ) るは更にして、己が有と占め置ける目のみえ耳のきこゆるも、態をなす手足 も、物をおもう心も、ひとつとして合点ゆきたる事はあるまじく候。それを世 の人いかがすますとなれば、「筈」(弓筈、矢筈から)というものをこしらえ て、これにかけてしまう也。其の「筈」とは、目は見ゆる筈、耳は聞こゆる 筈、重きものは沈む筈、かろき物は浮かぶ筈、是れはしれたる事也とすますな り。然れば其の次手に、雷は鳴る筈にて鳴り、地震は動く筈にて動き、枯れ木 に華さかんもさけばさく筈、石のものいわんもいえばいう筈と、すまし度るも のなり。

If we approach each thing with an unbiased mind, then we shall see that all these things, the rising and setting of the sun and moon, the constant changes of generation and decay, the eyes by which we see, the ears by which we hear, the limbs by which we move, the very mind itself which thinks these things, cannot have a single explanation. When we ask about them, people answer simply that this is how things must be, and leave it at that. By this token we should say simply that thunder roars because it must and earthquakes shake because they must. If a dead tree were to bloom it would be because it must bloom, if a stone were to speak it would be because it must speak.

又、少し書読などいう人は、雷は陰陽の闘いなどいいて、人をさとすなり。其 の人に陰陽というものをとえばしらず。爰において、我、其の智と愚とを弁ず る事能わず。(梅園はこざとへんを除いて陰陽を「まるはだか」にしている)

Now someone who has read a little might tell us that thunder is the conflict of yin and yang, but if we were to ask him what yin and yang are he would not know. In this respect the learned man is no better than the fool.

この故に、智を天地に達せんとならば、雷をあやしみ、地震をいぶかる心を手 がかりとして、此の天地をくるめて一大疑団(疑いのはげしいさま)となした き物に候。猛獣[6]まさに搏んとすれば、必ず形を伏す。鷙鳥まさに撃んとすれ ば、必ず翼を斂むとも申し候。とき事をせんとては、ふかくとどまる事をなす 事に候。弓をひくにも、矢の弓手(ユンデ)に遠くゆくは、馬手(メテ)にふ かく引くゆえなり。疑い多き人さとる事多し、疑いなき人のさとる事鈍きは、 弓に満を持せずして、矢を放てるがごとし。

So when we try to understand heaven and earth, we begin by wondering about thunder or earthquakes, and heaven and earth become one vast area of doubt. A wild animal will hide when it is about to strike, a vulture will fold its wings when it is about to attack, so we ourselves should pause to reflect thoroughly before undertaking these enquiries. When a bow is drawn, the further the arrow hand is pulled back from the bow, the further the arrow will travel. He who has many doubts achieves understanding, he who has no doubts is like the man who shoots an arrow without drawing the bowstring well back.

此の故に世の人の天地をしらざるは、慣れ癖に貪着なく、習気を秘蔵する故に て候。是れに因りて天地を達観せんと思し召して、平生慣れて常とする事を疑 いの初門とし、触るる事悉く御不審を起こされ、我、かくおもいかくうたがう もの、もと人なれば人の執気ある処を、御かえり見有るべく候。

People do not understand heaven and earth because they are confined to the familiar, they hold fast to their habits of thought. This means that if we are to see heaven and earth with insight, our first task is to query familiar everyday things, to regard everything we come across as an object of curiosity, and to acknowledge that we who are doubting and thinking are merely human, with human habits.


天地を師とすべきこと

世に所謂、天地に通ずるとは、天象地理を記し、日月星辰(星は恒星、辰は惑 星)の運行を推歩する人の事に候。なる程其の学を専門につとむる人は、思々 の念、其の学精密にも至るべく候えども、前段に申せしごとく、それはそれ切 にして、日は何故一歳に天を一周し、天は何ゆえ一日に地を一周し、緯行は何 故一度は南し一たびは北すると、うら返し候えば、是れも只、然あるによりて 然かそゆるのみに候えば、達観とは申す間敷く候。

Those who are said to understand heaven and earth are those who record celestial phenomena and geographical features, or those who chart the movements of sun, moon, stars and planets. Admittedly people who specialise in these things are diligent in their enquiries and study with precision, but as we have already said, there is nothing more to it than that. When they are asked why the sun goes around heaven once a year and heaven goes around the earth once a day, why the ecliptic is sometimes in the north and sometimes in the south, they answer that this is the natural course of things, they do not speak with insight.

さて書籍と申し候物もむかしの人の面々の見たる所を書きつけたる物にて、造 物者の書きたる物にてなく候えば、其の人の通じたるかたは明らかにも候えど も、塞がるかたの候て、たとえば人の、物いうには通じ候えども、臭いをかぐ 事は塞がりて、犬猫に劣り候様の物に御座候。

Even when it comes to books, the ancients wrote about what they saw before them, those books were not written by lords of creation. Although the scholars no doubt understood some things very clearly, there were other things they could not penetrate. This is analogous to the fact that although a man may understand words, his sense of smell is very limited, he is inferior to cats and dogs in this respect.

されども、むかしより書にても著し候程の人は、みな、常の人[7]には等をこえ たる人に候えば、最初書によるもよく候えども、天地を得(トク)と臍の下に 入れて書きたる書もなく候えば、執する所ありて、徴を正にとらざれば、是れ 又、大習気の種子に候。

But from ancient times the writers of books have been superior men, therefore it is reasonable enough to rely on them to begin with. No writer, however, has captured heaven-and-earth and held it beneath his gaze, and because we adhere to habit and fail to follow the correct signs, books are also the seeds of great habits.

書を大習気の種子と申すを激論の様にも思しめすべく候えども、目のあたりあ る事にて申し候わんに、人生まれて嬰孩(エイガイ)の時、猶、天然の真を失せ ず、其の子を一人は浄門の僧となし、一人は日蓮下の僧となし、各おの其の師 に従って学ぶ事十年、帰り会して各所見を呈せんに、十年の習気、氷炭あい反 し、死すといえども其の守をかえず。嬰孩天然の真をもとむとも、いかでか再 度かえる事を得ん。

If you think it is going too far to say that books are the seeds of great habits, consider this actual case. Two boys were born, and in their infancy before they had lost a true perception of heaven and earth, one was sent away to become a Jodo priest and the other to be a Nichiren priest. After studying under their teachers for ten years, they returned home and tried to explain to one another what they had learned. But the habits of thought that they had acquired in those ten years were as incompatible as ice and burning coal, not even the threat of death could make them change their opinions. Although as young children they had had a true perception of heaven and earth, there was no hope that this could be regained.

此の故に、書に因りて自得、是れ即ち徹底、造物起り来て自ずから談ずとも此 の外あるべからずとおもうとも、是れ即ち、習気、人に憑ってしからしむるか はしるべからず候。

If we were to rely entirely on books for knowledge, believing this knowledge to be thorough - as though the lords of creation themselves had spoken to us and things could not possibly be otherwise - we should still be relying on human habits of thought, there would be no escape.

此の故に門を尋ねて其の主人にあい、其の主人に請うて己が耳目を具する者を ば、我、是れを風化の人とて、従前の事跡を考え、荒外の地理など察し候様の 事には、古今の変化沿革、東西の遠近離属、そのほか、百爾(もろもろ)の方 法、我が見聞の及ばざる所をのせ、世々の人の発明ともあわせ照らさんには、 書はまことに主に候えども、天地はむかし新しき天地にもあらず。今ふるき天 地にもあらず。いつもかわらぬ無塩(新鮮さ)にして、我が炉中の火、即ち万 里の外の火にして、我が盃中の水、即ち千古の前の水なれば、此の天地をし り、此の水火をしらんとならば、[8]先ず此の無塩に試みて、傍ら書籍に参考 し、あわざる処を置き、あう処をとるべし。

Thus I may visit schools and speak to the masters, and because whenI question them I find that they share my own ideas and attitudes, I call them educated and well informed. I ponder the relics of the past, and study the geography of distant lands, how far away they are to west or east, and a hundred other such things. For noting things beyond what I see and hear directly, and confirming other people's discoveries, books are indeed important.

Nevertheless, heaven and earth are neither old nor new, ancient nor modern, they are always constant and unchanging. The fire in my fireplace is the same fire that is ten thousand miles away, the water in my bowl was the same water a thousand ages ago. Since this is so, if we try to understand heaven and earth, and to understand this fire and this water, we must first apply ourselves to the unchanging. When we consult the books beside us, we should reject anything contrary to our findings, and accept only what does agree.

此の故に、天地達観の位には、聖人と称し仏陀と号するも、もとより人なれ ば、畢竟、我が講求討論の友にして、師とするものは天地なり。

When it comes to seeing heaven and earth with insight, some people have been called "sages" or "buddhas", but because they were nothing other than human beings, their place is in the long line of companions in our continuing discussion. Heaven-and-earth is the teacher.

天地を師とする時は、古の聖賢より諸子百家、今日蒭蕘(スウギョウ:木こり) 狂夫の言葉にいたる迄、等の隔てはあるべけれども、ともに文を以て友を会す る位にして、取捨は各おのあるべき事に候。天地は広き量にて候程に、いれざ るものなく候。容れざる者なく候程に、達観の位に学流の門戸なく候。

If the teacher is heaven-and-earth, although from the works of the ancient sages or the hundred schools, to the words of grass-cutters or lunatics today there will always be great differences, these people can all become our companions with a common bond of learning, we can accept some doctrines and reject others. Because heaven-and-earth is immeasurably vast, there is nothing that it does not contain, and because there is nothing that it does not contain, seeing heaven-and-earth with insight is not confined to any school.

前かた、或る人来たりて、「我、已に此の天地を呑却す」といいし程に、「天 地大なり、天地を呑却する人、幾百千万をか容る覧」と謂いて笑いし事あり。 いかに広大精微を説き出し候ても、天地にある広大精微に候。いかに超越不群 の人に候ても、此の天地の内に立ち、此の天地の内をゆく人に候。

Once someone came to me and said "I have already absorbed heaven-and-earth". I replied "Heaven-and-earth is so vast that if you have absorbed it, how many millions of people who have also absorbed heaven-and-earth you must have inside you!", and he laughed. However vast or small we say it is, the vastness or smallness is still within heaven-and-earth. However exceptional or superior a person may be, he still stands and moves within heaven-and-earth.


侌昜

其の達観する処の道は、則ち條理にて、條理の訣(奥義)は「反観合一、捨心 之所執、依徴於正」のみに候。

The way to true understanding is jori. The key to jori is simply discarding habits of thought, following the correct signs, and seeing opposites as one.

捨心之所執(心の所執を捨てる)とは、習気を離るる事にして、依徴於正(徴に正 しきに依る)とは、徴と見えながら徴にあらざる徴あり、たとえば、日月は慥か に西にゆくの徴あれども、其の実は東に行く、水は正しく火の讎(仇)と見ゆれ ども、火は水によってなるごとし。

Discarding habits of thought means freeing oneself from personal attachments. Following the correct signs means being able to distinguish those things that are signs from those that are not. For example, as we see it, there is every sign that the sun and moon travel westwards, but the truth is they travel eastwards, and water seems certainly to be the enemy of fire, but fire in fact depends on water.

天地の道は陰陽にして、陰陽の体(タイ)は対して相い反す。反するに因りて 一に合す。天地のなる処なり。
The way of heaven-and-earth is yin and yang. The bodies of yin and yang contrast and oppose one another, and by opposition they combine as one. Then they constitute heaven-and-earth.

反して一なるものあるによりて、我、これを反して観合わせて観て、其の本然 (ほんねん)を求むるにて候。此の故に、條理は則ち一有二、二開一。二なる が故に、粲立(サンリツ)して條理を示し、一なるが故に、混成して罅縫(カホ ウ)を[9]越没す。

Because opposites unite as one, when we look at things as opposites andalso as one we are seeking their true nature. Jori signifies that one possesses two, and two open one. When there are two, their distinctness reveals jori, when there is one,the two merge and no seams are visible.

反観合一は、則ちこれを繹(タズ)ぬるの術にして、反観合一する事能わざれ ば、陰陽の面目をみる事能わず。未だ陰陽の面目を見る事能わずんば、博識多 覧、聡明頴悟の人というとも、天地の室(核心)をうかがい見ることは、得るあ るまじく候。此の故に、條理を天門の鎖鑰(サヤク:重要な鍵)とも申し候。

Seeing opposites as one is the art of discovering things in this way. If we cannot see opposites as one, we cannot perceive yin and yang, if we cannot perceive yin and yang, even those of us who are most wise and well-informed are unable to see into the innermost recesses of heaven-and-earth. This is why we also call jori "the key to the gates of heaven".


條理

條はもと木のえだにして、理は其のすじなり。

"Jo" originally meant a branch of a tree, and "ri" referred to the grain of the wood.

是れを木に就いていうに、其の一本の身木、根を有し標(コズエ)を有し、根 には次第に根をわかち、標には次第に標をわかつ。其の分かるる内、子細にみ ればすじあり。其のすじというもの、何の為のすじなれば、気、其のすじに従 って運び、形、其の気の運びによって成るにて候。

Take the example of a tree. A tree-trunk has roots below and branches above. The roots gradually divide into more roots, and the branches into more branches. If you look closely at the points where they divide you will find linesof the grain of the wood. What is the purpose of these lines? They are there for the ki that is conveyed along them, and the grain determines the pattern in which the ki is conveyed.

是れをひとつ水に移していわんに、田に水を灌がんとしては、必ず溝を拵ゆる 也。其の溝、即ち水の理(リ)也。理のわかるる処、條わかれ、千條万枝にな り候も、其の理たち候えば、数限りなき田地にても、水、其の理に従い灌ぐに より、ある程の稲の数々、葉の末、穎(ホ)の先までも従い達し申し候。

Water is another example. Channels must be made to convey water through the fields. These channels are the ri of the water. The ri divide into branches. A thousand branches may become ten thousand branches, but because of ri, even if the fields were endless, water would reach the millions of leaves of rice there, to the tips of the grains, by flowing in along the ri.

此の故に天気東西に転じ、日月順逆の行をなすも、川流れ潮泝(サカノボ)る も、鳶飛び魚躍るも、気、理に従って運ぶ事に候。試みに何なりとも草木の葉 をとりて御覧候べし。大理小理をさき、眼精の及ばざる迄も理は敷き候て、気 運び、己々が形をなし候。此の故に、理という物は、天にも地にも、山にも水 にも、乃至、鳥獣・魚鼈・虫豸・菌寓の類にも、形は気の運ぶに候えば、気運 ぶべき理なきはなく候。

The ki of heaven travels from east to west, and the sun and moon in the reverse direction. Rivers run and tides flow, kites fly and fishes leap; and in all of these ki is conveyed according to their ri. To see this, pick a green leaf and look at its veins. The larger ri divide into finer ri, and the ri continue thus until they are so fine they are no longer visible. The ki that is conveyed along these ri forms the different shapes of the leaves. Ri form the shapes of all things by conveying ki; from heaven and earth, seas and mountains, to all the kinds of birds, fish, turtles, worms and fungi. There can be no ri that do not convey ki.

此の故に、條理の理は、古人の説ける理もその内の事には候えども、死活の隔 てある事に候。人身の脈といえるも、即ち此の[10]理にして他物にはあらず。 理を以て形はなるものなれば、美醜長短も皆、此の理のなす処なり。されども 是も慣れて繹ぬる貪着なければ、人の体のひくつきなりと濟まし、其の上は、 秦越人(名医の扁鵲)王叔和の言を造物者の直訣のごとく、是を金科玉條となし て、偶疑をきざしても、小智は菩提のさまたげと了見し、一生明堂(灸の模型 図)の蒙茸に取りつき候も、本意なき事に候。

Although the "ri" of "jori" bears some relation to that word as it was used by the ancients, our usage here is as different from theirs as the living are from the dead. The arteries and veins of the human body are these ri and nothing else. Insofar as ri are found in things with shape, it is these ri which determine whether they be beautiful or ugly, long or short.

However, because people are so accustomed to things they do not persist in enquiry, their interest in the human body does not extend beyond the pulses. They take the words of Wang Shu Ho as the direct pronouncement of a creator, as the Golden Rule, and their small minds see the slightest hint of doubt as an obstacle to enlightenment. All their lives they hold fast to the frantic confusion of the Ming Hall and never find what they seek.

人の経脈、みな一身に気血を運ぶ道路にして、唯其の間、気質の分あり。古人 経脈の名目をば設けながら、其の説は分明なる事も承らず、是れ又、慣るるに 安んじ、書籍の習気を執し、徴に正による事能わず。其の造言の始めの人を神 聖とたて、これ造物者の位に置き候。是れ即ち天地を師とせず、人を師とする 弊にて御座候。

Arteries and veins are the routes by which ki and blood are conveyed through the body, and it is within these that ki and matter are separated. Although the ancients had names for arteries and veins, they did not try to give a clearer account of them. Instead, they contented themselves with the familiar, stuck to their books, and failed to see the correct signs. As these words were invented by holy men they were revered as the pronouncements of a creator. In other words, instead of taking heaven-and-earth as their teacher, the ancients made the mistake of taking men as their teachers.

天地を師と致し候は、反観の工夫にて、反観の工夫熟し候えば、天地になき事 はしらず、幽と隔て玄とふかく候とも、天地にある程の事は、推しいたるべき 事に候。

Taking heaven-and-earth as teacher is using the method of looking for opposites, and once we have mastered the art of seeing opposites we shall not accept anything as fact that is not true of heaven-and-earth. However remote, obscure, deep or mysterious, if anything exists in heaven and earth it can be thought about.

條理は則ち物中に具する性体にして、性もと一、体をひらくに至っては、一陽 一陰相反す。故に一は二を有し、二は一を開く。故に一即二にして、二は則ち 万物の位、一は則ち統べざる所なきの位なり。

Jori is the endowment of objects with nature and body; nature itself is one, and when it opens as bodies one yang is matched with one yin. And so one possesses two, two open one. Therefore one is two, and two amount to all the things of the manifold. There is nothing that is not unified in the one.


気物

初心の間は、只仰いで蒼々として、碧瑠璃のごとくなる物を見て天とおもい、 俯してホウハクとして土石の填てるを見て、地を談じ候。是れもさる事には候 えども、是れは至って麁(粗)底(ソテイ:荒っぽい次元)の天地にて、此の位よ り天地を窺い候えば、所謂天文地理運行の推歩にとどまり候て、ある物を数え 候に過ぎず候。

When we first look up at the sky above us, blue as lapis lazuli, we take this as "heaven", and the vast crust of soil and stones beneath us we call "earth". So they may be, but these are a very coarse heaven and earth. When heaven and earth are studied from this point of view we do not get beyond astronomy, geography, and predicting the paths of heavenly bodies, which is no further than making calculations about particular things.

天地とは、もと気物の成名にして、気、天を[11]成し、物、地を成す物に候え ば、一物あれば一天地、万物あれば万天地也。古人の所謂「物々各一大極を具 う」にて、恒河沙(10の56乗)の世界と申し候えば、事々敷く多かる様に聞こえ 候えども、恒河(ガンジス川)の沙(砂)の内、已に恒河沙の世界をそなえ候え ば、天地は幾恒河沙をかさねても、つくす事にあらず。

Heaven and earth are nothing other than ki and object, heaven being ki,and earth being object, such that if there is one thing there is one heaven-and-earth, if there are ten thousand things heaven-and-earth is ten thousandfold. The ancients have said that each thing constitutes One Primary Ultimate, or that things are numberless as the sands of the Ganges. However high the Ganges sands are piled these heaven-and-earths will never come to an end.

是れ即ち二の位にて候。是を二の位と申し候は、天地かくの如く紛々擾々とし て、物多き様に見え候えども、只かたちある物ひとつ、かたちなき物ひとつ、 此の外に何も物なく候。其のかたち有る物を物と申し、かたちなき物を気と申 し候。

There are but two things. I say there are two, for although we see heaven-and-earth as profuse diversity, however many things we seem to see, there is the one thing with shape, the one thing without shape, and nothing else whatsoever. The thing with shape I call "object", and the thing without shape I call "ki".

かたちなき物は目にさえぎらず、手にさわらず候程に、むかしの人も心得違い て、虚空なり、無なりとおもい候。

Because the thing without shape does not confront the eyes, is not felt by the hands, people in the olden days misunderstood it, they described it as void, or nothingness.

勿論、地の実に反して其の体虚し、地の質あるに反して質なく候えば、天を質 なき虚体の物と心得候えばよく候えども、さなく候て、あながちに虚無虚空と 心得候ては、大なる間違いに御座候。もし、其のさす処の空無、真の空無に候 わば、日月星辰もかかる所なく、我も物も居る処なかるべし。日月星辰も已に 其の内にかかられ、物も我も已に其の内に遊ばるれば、此の虚体、あるに相違 はなし。ある物をさして無という、是れ顛倒の念ならずや。

Of course in opposition to the substantiality of earth, the body of heaven is hollow, and in contrast to the matter of the earth it is immaterial, but it is a great mistake to think of it as merely nothing or void. If what they meant by "nothingness" or "void" were truly nothingness or void, there would be no place for the sun, moon, stars and planets to hang, and no place for ourselves and other things to dwell. Insofar as the sun, moon, stars and planets are hung within it, and we and other objects dwell within it, it is indeed a hollow body. But what could be more foolish than to point to something and call it "nothing"?


神物

此の故に地は実にして体をなす。実の体あって山原糊海これに列なり、虚の体 あって日月雲雨これに居る。ここにおいて、精細によく思量すれば、気は実体 の地中にも、虚体の天中にも、一杯に充満して、纖毫の罅隙なし。

The earth is substantial, and it is a body. It is a substantial body in which mountains, fields, rivers and oceans take their place, and there is a hollow body in which dwell sun, moon, clouds and rain. If you reflect carefully on all this you will see that ki is contained both in the substantial body that is earth and the hollow body that is heaven, filling them to the brim without a gap of one hair's breadth.

是を人の身の上にて申さんに、此の身は則ち実体の地にして、温動を[12]以て 立つの気は、則ち天なり。温動にかたちなければとて、是をなき物というべか らず。其の温動の精英即ち人の神にして、名を分かち命ずれば、これを心と名 づくる也。此の故に、此の有体の身は、則ち神の入れ物にして、無体の神は、 畢竟、物の命なり。

The human body illustrates this. Flesh is earth, the substantial body, and heaven is the ki that gives rise to warmth and movement. We cannot say warmth and movement are nothing merely because they have no shape. That refined warmth and movement is the human spirit, because we want a name for it we call it "mind". Thus the flesh, which has a body, is a receptacle for the spirit, and the bodiless spirit is ultimately the life.

此の故に、気聚まれば物結ぶ。物むすべば、神立つ。人は小物なり、天地は大 物なり。小物も神と物とを以て成り、大物も神と物とを以て成る。一々粲立の 手前よりしていうときは、天地の物は天地の物にして、万物の物は万物の物な り。天地の神は天地の神にして、万物の神は万物の神なり。

Where this ki gathers together it binds into an object, where it binds into an object spirit is found. A man is a small object, heaven-and-earth is a large object. Both large and small objects are composed of spirit and object. When we speak of objects as standing distinct, one to one, the object, heaven-and-earth is the object, heaven-and-earth, the objects of the manifold are the objects of the manifold, the spirit of heaven-and-earth is the spirit of heaven-and-earth, the spirit of the manifold is the spirit of the manifold.

ここに一々剖析(ホウセキ:解剖解析)の理を考うるに、かく森羅万象競い立 つ様なれども、資る所に変態ありて、給する処に二つなし。故に其の森羅万 象、同一神物を混成す。是れ反して合一する処を観る也。何故に反して合一す る処を観るとなれば、物、一々と成るかたち、本来必ず相反す。本来よく反す る故に、合すれば一つと成る。

In terms of the ri of division into one and one, although all objects and phenomena of the manifold seem to compete in their diversity, that which takes is diverse, but that which gives is not even two. All objects and events of the manifold merge in the one spirit-and-object. We see this by combining them as opposites. Whenever things we see as opposites combine as one they must be true opposites, and if they are true opposites they will become one when they are combined.

是を人工の上にていえば、ゼイと鑿(ほぞ(臍)とほぞ穴)となり。ゼイの中高に さし出たるに反して、鑿は中窪に落ち入るなり。其の凹凸に少しにても無理あ れば、或いはきしみ或いはくっつき、ひしと合す。反せざれば一を成さざるゆ えんなり。此の故に、造物のたくみ反する時は條理粲立すれども、合う時は混 成して其の縫目を見ず。

We can illustrate this with an artifact such as a tenon and mortise joint. The tongue of the tenon is opposed by the groove of the mortise. If there is the slightest unevenness they will either come loose or jamtight. If they are not truly opposed they cannot become one. When artifacts are skilfully opposed jori stands distinct, and when fitted together they will merge without trace of a seam.

此の故は、神はかたちのうして活し、物はかたち有って立つ。かたちよく其の 神を容れて活し、神よく其のかたちに居りて立つ。しからば、神、其の状(ジ ョウ)いかがぞといえば、唯活発々地、俗にいわゆるぴちぴちなり。

Spirit has no shape, and is active, objects have shape and are stable. Shape is full of spirit and is active, spirit dwells within shape and is stable. The natural state of spirit may be described simply as animation or "spiritedness".

[13]條理の道、次第に天地を剖析し、剖析にしたがいて其の反態も変化を尽く し、然して物の分かれる処、各々一神物を成立すれば、其のなりの出来様と、 其のぴちつきのし様とは千態万貌異なれども、火は火の体をなして火のぴちつ きをなし、水は水の体を成して水のぴちつきをなし、魚鳥、魚鳥の体にして魚 鳥にぴちつき、天地、天地の体にして天地にぴちつく。

Heaven-and-earth is gradually divided by the way of jori. Things so divided are opposed in pairs and endlessly diversified. Each thing is divided as spirit and object and assumes the forms and activities of a thousand different fashions and ten thousand different faces. Fire has the body of fire and the activity of fire, water has the body of water and the activity of water, fish and birds have the bodies of fish and birds and the activities of fish and birds, and heaven-and-earth has the body of heaven-and-earth and the activity of heaven-and-earth.

其のぴちぴちをさして、鬱渤という事にして、混淪は則ち物立ちて見わるる貌 (ボウ)なり。

This liveliness I call "dynamic flux" and a stable object as it appears before us is "chaotic content".

古人はもと地の貌をホウハクというに対して、天の貌を混淪といいしなれど も、今ここに混淪というは、天地をくるめて物となし、神の鬱渤に対して形容 せる言葉なり。さる程に、各々成就の上にていえば、蝦の小むずかしきかたち も、蛞蝓(ナメクジ)の太平なるなりも、皆、己々が混淪なり。

Although the ancients described the appearance of heavens as "konron" in contrast to the rough appearance of the earth, here I mean by it chaotic content, an object which comprises heaven and earth, in contrast to the dynamic flux of spirit. Every particular thing, be it a tiny wriggling shrimp, or a slow slug, is itself a chaotic content.

混淪の上にていえば、地は々たる内に一点の中をなして居る者也。其の一点小 さき事形容すべきものなし。其の一点よく地を載せ、点を載せて撓まず。中の 一点、小さき事形容すべからずとは、一点中に内なければなり。もし僅かにも 内あれば、至って小さき物にあらず。中の一点内なきが故に、其の外の大なる 事外をなさず。外をなさざるもの即ち無窮也。ここにおいて、物、其の中の一 点に嶷乎(ギョッコ)として立ち無際涯にいたるもの、是れ大物の混淪なり。

To say more about chaotic content, within the earth lies the centrepoint of all-pervading space, the smallness of that point is beyond our imagination. Never faltering, this point supports the earth and carries heaven around it. The smallness of this point is beyond our imagination because it cannot have any interior at all. If it had the slightest interior it would not be the smallest thing possible. If the centre point has no interior the great thing beyond it can have no exterior, whatever has no exterior is boundless. From this one point things stretch to infinity, this is the chaotic content of the great object.

此の故に、とこはてもなき物をたてて、ぴちぴちとする神を其の内に活す。是 を神(しん)鬱渤として活し、物(ぶつ)混淪として立つといい、小物皆己が かたちを此の混淪にとり、己が神を此の鬱渤に資りて天地の間[14]にならびた ち、各々の作用をなすことなり。

Thus is formed a boundless object with lively spirit active within it. So we say that the spirit is active as dynamic flux, and the object is stable as a chaotic content. Small objects all take their shape from this chaotic content, and their spirit from this dynamic flux, each one taking its place between heaven and earth and performing its own function.

さて右に蒼々として碧瑠璃のごとく、ホウハクとして土石の填てるは、麁(粗)底の天地 と申し候。気に精麁(粗)有りて、物を没露致し候。先ずこの精麁(粗)没露の態を弁じ て、かく蒼々たるものを戴 き、かくホウハクたるものを踏むことも見え申す可く、そ の精麁(粗)とは、麁(粗)なる処の気、其の体を没すといえども、猶其の場所をもてり。 精しき所の気は、物の内に居りて、其の場所を持たず。

Consider again that blue sky, like lapis lazuli, and those vast piles of rough stones and soil. This describes a very coarse heaven and earth. There are fine ki and coarse ki, and concealed objects and manifest objects. First we must explain the states of fineness, coarseness,concealment and manifestation, whether we are considering the blue sky above us or the rough ground beneath our feet. Taking "fine" and "coarse", coarse ki has a concealed body, but nevertheless holds a place. Fine ki dwells within objects, but does not hold a place.

場所をもつもたずということは、先ず水入れにていはんに、水入れを拵ゆる始 め、先ず孔を二つあくる也。其の二つの孔の作用いかにとおもんみるに、此の 水入れの量、水一升をいるるとみて、いまだ水をいれざる内に水一升をいるる 程の場、此の器の内にあり。水なき内にも、只空物にはあらず。すなわち此の 没体の気を一盃充て居れり。さる故に、此の器に水をいるる時には、一方の穴 より気出ず。水出る時には、又一方の孔より気入る。是れ、其の場のしばらく も虚無にして居ることのならざればなり。此の故に、地のあらざる所は、天、 其の場所をなす。此の場所ある故に、日月も此の内にかかり、山川も此の内に 列なり、風も此の内に吹き、雨も此の内に降り、われと物とも皆此の内に遊ぶ なり。

To illustrate holding or not holding a place, take a water pot. A water pot is made with two holes, what are these for? If the pot is made to hold two litres it will hold just that much water and no more. Even when there is no water in the pot it is not really empty, it is filled to the brim with ki whose body is concealed, so that when water is poured into the pot, this ki comes out of the other hole, and when water comes out ki enters by the other hole. The reason for this is that a place cannot be void for a single moment. Wherever there is no earth, heaven is in that place. A place must exist for sun and moon to hang within, for mountains and rivers to be arranged within, for wind to blow and rain to fall within, and for ourselves and all things to dwell within.

ここにおいて、かたちあるものを露体(ロタイ)といい、かたちなきものを没 体(ボッタイ)という。其の体を没すといえども、猶その場を有する物は、麁 (粗)中に天をなして、精中よりこれをみれば、其の天、猶地のごとくなり。

A thing with shape we call a "manifest" body, and a thing without shape a "concealed" body. That which holds a place although its body is concealed is heaven within the coarse. If we look at heaven from within the fine it is just the same as earth.

然して鬱渤の神にいたりては、其の場を占めず。其の場を占めざる故に、水成 れば水鬱渤として活し、火成れば火鬱渤として活す。天地[15]の大なるよりし て、散小の万物にいたって、其の物々に鬱渤たり。これ中庸にいわゆる、「物 に体して残さず」という位也。

Now, the spirit of dynamic flux does not hold a place. Because this spirit does not hold a place, where water is formed, water is active as dynamic flux, where fire is formed, fire is active as dynamic flux. From the greatness of heaven-and-earth to the small scattered things of the manifold, all things have dynamic flux. As it says in the Doctrine of the Mean, spirit permeates every object without exception.

此の故に、鬱渤として活し、此の混淪を立てるものは、物に体して其の体な し。没して天をなし、露して地をなす物は、畢竟、地中の天地にして、蒼々の 天、歴々の曜、央々たる無際涯に帰し、一大結物の地にして、鬱渤たる神の成 れる天に有せらる。

Spirit is active as dynamic flux, and makes every object stable as chaotic content. It is within the bodies of objects but is not itself a body. When it is concealed it becomes heaven, and when it is manifest it becomes earth. An object is ultimately a heaven-and-earth within the earth. The blue sky and the heavenly bodies belong to the all-pervading, which is infinite in extent. The one great combined object is earth, and the spirit of dynamic flux exists as heaven.

故に、天大地小と見る眼は、天地を達観する眼にあらず。もし、よく天地に達 し、條理に吐含ある事をしらば、地、なんぞ天より小ならん。天又何ぞ地より 大ならん。

Thus to see heaven as large and earth as small is not to see heaven and earth with insight. If we look at heaven and earth thoroughly and understand how jori swallows and ejects things, how could we take earth to be smaller than heaven, or heaven to be larger than earth?

此の故に、神物混成の所をみれば、物よく宅をなして其の鬱浡の神をいれ、神 よく活をなして、其の混淪の物をたつ。

Looking at spirit and object in their merged form, we see that object is the house in which dwells the spirit of dynamic flux. Spirit gives rise to activity, making the object stable as chaotic content.


天地  天機性体

只、麁(粗)底にしてよく没して虚の体を成し、露して地の体をなし、一大結物 中に天地を開くも、精麁(粗)並び分かれて、没露並び立つ。

Even in terms of the coarsealone, the concealed forms a hollow body, and the manifest forms a substantial body, opening as a coarse heaven and earth within the one great combined object.

But within this, fine is divided from and aligned with coarse, and the concealed and manifest are likewise aligned.

其の没する物を天機とし、其の露するものを性体とす。

The realms of the concealed are motive power and heaven, the realms of the manifest are nature and body.

此の性体というは、露して物を成す性体にして、性一体二といって、陰陽を立 つる所の性体とは、名同じうして差別あり。

Here by "nature and body" I mean the nature and body that are manifest to form an object. The use of the terms "nature and body" here is not the same as in "one nature, two bodies", or "nature and body give rise to yin and yang."

天機は没して天地 をなし、性体は露して天地を成す。天は天地を宇宙になし、 機は天地を転持になす。成し得て未だ天地を物に露わさず。体は虚実を以て天 地をなし、性は水火を以て天地をなす。成し得て已に天地を物に露わす。体を 露わさざる物、宅をなして、露わるるもの其の内に居る。

Motive power and heaven are concealed, and form heaven-and-earth, nature and body are manifest and form heaven-and-earth. Heaven is heaven-and-earth within the realm of space and time, motive power is heaven-and-earth within the realm of turning and holding. Heaven and motive power alone are not sufficient to manifest heaven and earth as objects. Body forms heaven as hollow and earth as substantial, nature forms heaven as fire and earth as water. Then heaven and earth are indeed manifest as objects. The object whose body is apparent is the house, and the manifest things dwell within it.

此の天機性体の四つのものは、棊盤の四つの脚のごとく、一脚なく候[16]て も、餘の三脚自ら立つ事を得ず候。

These four things, heaven, motive power, nature, and body, are like the four legs of a Go table, if one leg is missing the other three cannot stand alone.


天(宇宙)

此の宇宙の字を古来、古往今来を宙といい、天地四方を宇と解したり。是にて 大概すみ候えども、言の病これ有り候程に、唯、袞々(コンコン)として通ず るを宙、央々として塞がるを宇と御覧なさる可く候。

We have come to the term "uchu".From ancient times, past, present and future have been called "chu", and heaven and earth and the four directions have been called "u". This usage suffices in general, but the terms need clarifying. Here the passage of the perpetual ongoing is time ["u"], and the fullness of the all-pervading is space ["chu"].

されば今、布を織り候にも、経(タテイト)と緯(ヨコイト)と合わせざればな らず。家を立てるにも、箱をさすにも、縦横の道具なくしてはならず。是れ 経緯也。何故に経緯なくては物ならざるなれば、此の世界もと経緯にて織り たるもの故、其の間に成るもの、其の道によらざればならず候。

Now, in weaving a cloth, warp threads and woof threads must be combined. In building a house, or making a box, both upright and horizontal pieces are necessary. These are warp and woof, without warp and woof there could be no object. This world itself is an object woven from warp and woof. The things within it must follow these paths.

さる程に前つかた、竹を網代に組みたる団扇に一辞を請われたる事有りし時、我

 一直一円 一経一緯 人造有資 織諸元気

と書きて遺し候。

This is why when I was asked once to inscribe a woven bamboo fan, I wrote the following lines

  A line, a circle, a warp, a woof,
      man's work follows the weave of the primal ki.

さる程に、物ごとに経緯なきはなし。ちかく己が身にとりていえば、此の身緯 となり、此の命経となるなり。

Every object without exception consists of warp and woof. To take an example close at hand, our flesh is the woof and our life is the warp.

其の古き解に、言の病ありというは、大物に六つと定まれる数もなく、古往 き、今来たるという言も、是れより已往をいい遺せり。

It is misleading to divide the great object into six, as the ancients did. Furthermore, the ancient's interpretation of time, in which the past has gone and the present comes, does not include the future.

先ず是を小物にこころみて、漸くに推して、経緯の大なる物を知り、大なる経 緯をしりて、天地万物、経緯に織らるる事をしるべし。其の宇宙の面目を観る には、先ず此の露体の天地水火を除きて、其の経緯をしるべし。

By reflecting on the example of small objects to begin with, we eventually come to understand the warp and woof of the great object. When we understand the great warp and woof we shall inevitably understand that all the things of heaven and earth are interwoven as warp and woof. If we look at space and time directly, ignoring the manifest bodies of heaven, earth, water and fire, we shall understand warp and woof.

今、目を閉じて思惟を下さんに、しばらくかりにこの天地を掃却したりとも、 袞々として通じて押し移るの時と、央々として塞がりて物を置く処は、除き尽 さざるべし。袞々とは、水のひた流れに流るる[17]様に、いつより始まると も、いつに終わるとも、其の端を見ざる貌にして、央々とは、日月星辰もな く、ふむべき地、戴くべき天を分かたざれば、指すべき東西南北立たず、立つ べき上下も分かたざれども、唯、いづくを限りともしらざる貌なり。

If we were to shut our eyes and imagine this heaven and earth to be swept away, we could not extinguish the hours, the perpetual ongoing, which passes through, surging on. Nor could we extinguish place, the all-pervading which fills up everywhere. The perpetual ongoing would flow on like water with neither beginning nor end in sight; and even though the sun, moon, stars and planets, the earth on which we tread, the heaven at which we gaze, would all be swept away, so that we could neither point to south, east, north or west, nor distinguish up from down, the boundless all-pervading would remain.

押し移るを通ずるといい、あらぬ処なきを塞がるという。塞がるとは充塞の塞 にして、窒塞の塞にあらず。窒塞とは、かけ樋など水の通うべきが、ちり、木 の葉様の物、通いを閉じて水通わざる様の事にして、充塞はいずくまでも行き わたりて、ひまなき事なり。

The surging on of time we call "passage", and that which fills to the brim every place without exception is "fullness", but it is a fullness that does not block in the way that fallen leaves block the passage of water through a drainpipe. This fullness reaches everywhere, pervading every corner.

其の袞々として通ずる物、時にして経となり、ゆく物みな是を通るによりて、 万物の露となる。其の央々として塞がる物、処にして緯と成り、居る物皆是に 居るによりて、万物の宅となる。

Time, the perpetual ongoing, is the warp, it passes through all things,it is the path of the manifold. Space, the all-pervading which fills up, is the woof, everything that dwells, dwells within it, it is the house of the manifold.

此の故に、日月此の袞々として経に通ずる時に刻みをつけて、夜となり昼とな り、月となり歳となる。天地此の央々として塞がる処に緯を定めて、東となり 西となり、上となり下となる。

Days, nights, months and years, are markings made by the sun and moon as they pass through the warp, time, the perpetual ongoing; and east, west, up and down, are markings made by heaven-and-earth which assigns positions, as the woof fills up space, the all-pervading.

是れ経緯の本にして、小物の経緯知らず。織らざれども自然と此の則に従うな り。

Small objects are not aware that they are composed of warp and woof, but they spontaneously follow its principles.


機(転持)

天地もと活物、機を含んで動止す。気は外に居りて、其の方よく動き、物は内 に居りて、其の方よく止まる。

Heaven-and-earth is essentially active, it contains motive power which provides movement and rest. Ki lies on the outside, and moves around there, objects lie within where they are completely stationary.

うごく物は円にして、止まる物は直なり。円なる内に相い反して動く故に、一 は東にめぐり、一は西にめぐり、直なる内に相い反して動く故に、一は上り行 き、一は下り行く。爰において央々の内、内直にして持し、外円にして転ず。

Moving things describe circles, and stationary objects describe straight lines. The circular movement takes place in opposite directions, an eastward turning and a westward turning. The linear movements within oppose one another as up and down. Thus the radii of the all-pervading hold within, and the circle turns without.

転、天をなし、持、地をなし[18]て、宇宙転持の没、天地を成す。是れ皆気に して、物ならざるによりて、天地有りといえども、未だ目にさえぎらず、手に 触れず。没は露の偶にして、没有れば露あり。

Turning is heaven, holding is earth. The realms of space, time, turning, and holding constitute the concealed heaven-and-earth. These are realms of ki, not objects, and although heaven and earth exist here, they cannot be seen with the eyes or touched with the hands. The concealed pairs with the manifest, so wherever there is concealment there is manifestation.

天地はもと始めもなく終わりもなく、行く末の果てもなき物なり。

Heaven-and-earth has neither beginning nor end, it is infinite.

是れも人に始終ある習気を離れざる故、とかく始終を立てざれば心すまず。さ る程に、仏氏は此の世界に成住壊空などという事をたてて、空より次第に天地 をなし、終には壊し空劫に帰し、又成し又空するとも説き、邵康節などは混 沌・開闢(カイビャク)の説を増益して、天は子に開け、地は丑、人は寅に開 け、酉の会にして天を閉じ、戌の会にして地を閉じ、亥にして人をとずるなど と、思いおもいの自論にて杜撰(ズザン)をなせども、皆條理をしらざるより して、天人を混ずるの妄説なり。

Because man cannot rid himself of the habit of thinking in terms of beginning and end, he is not able to imagine something that does not have them. This is how the Buddhist doctrine of "formation, existence, destruction and non-existence" came about, in which heaven and earth are gradually formed from nothing, are finally destroyed and returned to void, then are formed again, and yet again become void. There has been a proliferation of theories, like the theory of evolution from chaos of Shao Yung, in which heaven begins in the first epoch, earth inthe second, man in the third, but in the tenth epoch heaven finishes, earth finishes in the eleventh, and man in the twelfth. There are all these arbitrary notions and theories, but none of them shows an understanding of jori. They are false doctrines which confuse heaven with man.

さる程に、天機、性体に先だつにもあらず。性体、天機に後るるにもあらず。 たとえば、一匹の錦、裏と表と一時になり、一卵のヒナ、左翼右翼一時になる がごとし。此の故に、没中の天地を先説くとて、没、先なるとするにもあら ず。露中の天地を後説くとて、露、後なるにあらず。

Heaven and motive power do not precede nature and body, and nature and body do not precede heaven and motive power. For example, the raw side and finished side of a piece of brocade exist simultaneously, and a chicken has both left and right wings from the moment of hatching. Thus, although I have explained the concealed heaven-and-earth first, it is not prior to the manifest heaven-and-earth, nor is the manifest prior to the concealed because I have explained it later.

体(天地)と性(水火)

此の故に、已に一物あれば、其の物に没する気を有し、露するたいを有するな り。其の有する体、二つにわかるれば、虚実なり。虚の体よく天を成し、実の 体よく地を成し、然うして其の陰性、無際涯より内に収めて地を結び、陽気に 噴れて水をなす。陽性、中の一点より発して天に散じ、陰気に聚められて火を 成す。

Thus the single object possesses ki, which is concealed within it, and a body, which is manifest. This body divides into two bodies, one hollow and one substantial. The hollow body is heaven, the substantial body is earth. Yin nature gathers in from boundless infinity and binds together as earth, and water is formed when the ki of yang is emitted by the ki of yin. Yang nature, radiating outwards from the centre point, is dispersed into heaven and gathered by the ki of yin to form fire.

ここにおいて、日月星辰上にかかり、山原湖海下に羅(ツラ)[19]なる。

Herein the sun, moon, stars and planets hang above, and mountains, fields, lakes and oceans are set out below.

兒女の輩、地という物は金輪際というよりはえぬき、天というものは、浄玻璃 (ジョウハリ:透明硝子)の様なる物にて、天井のごとくはりまわして、其の 間は唯何もなく、空々たるから物にて、東西南北の海は、さきよりさきにひた つづきにつづきて占めつかず、月日は地の下をくぐり来る様に心得、天地の真 形一円球にして、地、其の核子なるをしらず。

Women and children in common parlance refer to earth as springing from "the place of the golden wheel" They believe that heaven is a clear crystal dome stretched over it, and between this earth and heaven there is absolute emptiness, the seas to north, south east and west continue endlessly in all directions, and the sun and moon pass beneath the earth and up again the other side.


天球と地球

其の天地の真形は、地球の円、其のさし出たる処、国となり、落ち入りたる 処、海となり、上下四方人取りまわし、海もろともに円にして、天、央々たり といえども、又円にして天象をいるるなり。

The true shape of heaven-and-earth is a single sphere of which the earth is the core. The projections of the spherical earth are dry land, the depressions are sea. Man is surrounded by up, down and the four directions, the oceans spread around the sphere. Although heaven is infinite and all-pervading it too forms a sphere, enclosing the heavenly bodies.

されども、人、天を戴き、地を踏むの習になずみ、水は傾けばこぼるるなどい う左徴(真実でない証拠)にいつき、智恵働かず。此の故に、物には必ず始あ り終あり、地は平らにして天は長く、月日は西にむかい、水は傾けばこぼれ、 火に煎ずれば水は尽き、水を灌げば火は滅し候などいう様のなずみつき、それ をよき證拠と確く覚え込み候故、何分にも智の働き出ず、其の事語りても、只 石に水を投ずるがごとくに候。

Nevertheless, people are accustomed to thinking of heaven as a canopy and earth as the ground on which we tread.
Believing that it is obvious that if a water container is tilted the water will spill, they do not tax their thinking powers any further. Thus they are constrained by habit to think that things must necessarily begin and end, that the earth is flat and heaven is long, that the sun and moon move westwards, that water spills if tilted, that water will be reduced to nothing if it is boiled on a fire, that fire would be extinguished forever if water were poured on it, and so on, thinking that such things are well proven and established with certainty. Consequently they do not exert their minds further, and telling them otherwise has no more effect than splashing water on stone.

さる程に、天地をしらんとならば、先ず此の麁(粗)底の天地の形体、日月の運 行を尋ね知るべきなり。運行は推歩家あり、形体は天文地理の書あり。西洋の 学入りしより、これを実徴実測に試みて、次第に精密になれり。猶ゆくゆく開 くべく覚ゆ。世に其の人ある事なれば、就いて学ぶに不自由なる事なし。

If we desire to understand heaven-and-earth, we should first find out the shape of the coarse heaven and earth and the motions of the sun and moon. Astronomers predict the movements of heavenly bodies, and books of astronomy and geography tell us about the shapes of heaven and earth. Western scholars experiment with observations and measurements, their findings gradually becoming more and more precise, and we can expect to see many more discoveries. Because there are such learned people in the world there is nothing that cannot be studied thoroughly.

然してそろそろと自分の眼を生じ、古人の謬説に惑わざるべし。先ず初入、い ずれにも天地をまろくなすべし。天地とくとまろく成りぬれば、水を倒にして こぼるる[20]処なく、東を西にさしてもまどう処なし。さて、昼夜かわるがわ る長短し、春秋一時に之有るがごとき、反観合一の工夫も、実に試みる処出来 たり。然して後、はじめて我が習気に泥まされしということもさとり、稍々智 の働き出来たり、達観の楷悌となりぬべし。

And so gradually our eyes are opened and we cease to be led astray by the fallacies of the ancients. The first step of all must be to understand that the world is round. When we understand that the world is spherical in form, water cannot spill over the edge, pointing to the east and calling it west is no longer a mistake either. Likewise, the lengthening and shortening of days and nights, the coexistence of spring and autumn, and suchlike things may be studied by the device of seeing opposites as one. Only then shall we be aware that we have been constrained by habits of thought. Slowly we shall set our minds to work and take the first step to seeing with insight.

此の故を以て、天地達観の初門は、天地の形体、日月の運行をしるにしくはな し。

So the first steps to seeing heaven-and-earth with insight is to learn the shapes of heaven and earth and the movements of the sun and moon.


学問と学派

古今の書籍は、牛に汗し棟に充ても、猶あまり有る事に候えども、みな習気の 内より書きたる物ゆえ、其のなずみをさるの良薬と存ずるは見あたらず候。し か申し候えば、只手まえ申し候事のみ、よき様に候えども、さにも御座無く 候。

The books we have had until now would be too heavy a load for oxen to pull, or too high a pile to store under a roof, but however numerous they may be, they were all written under the constraints of habit, and we can find within them no remedy for dispelling this habit. This may seem to be merely my own opinion, but that is not the case.

天地に條理あり。分かれて粲立し、合して罅縫を没する処は、天地本来の面 目、古人ときいたらざる所と自らは断じ候え共、むかしの人も、皆是れ天地密 合と存ぜず候て、説をなしたる人もなく、我も亦天地にあらざれば、我が習気 の僻、必ず多かるべし。故に三語数十万言、天地に合する処あらば天地に帰 し、天地に合わざる処、晋(ススム)にて之有る可く候。しかれば必ず、我が 説御信用に及ばず。これを天地に質して戻る所、唯其の正を冀う事に候。

There is jori in heaven and earth. When jori parts things they stand distinct, when it combines things the seams are invisible, this is essentially how heaven-and-earth is. That is not what the ancients said, but what I say myself. Indeed, no-one has put forward a theory that agrees with heaven and earth exactly. And because I do not have an accurate grasp of heaven and earth, my habits must haveled me to numerous errors. Therefore in my three books with their many thousands of words, those words that agree with heaven and earth should be attributed to heaven and earth, and those that do not agree with heaven and earth should be imputed to me. One must not trust my words blindly, but verify them by heaven and earth, and accept only those things that heaven and earth show to be correct.

さる程に、世の師の門に遊ぶ人、其の師説に違う事を心苦しく思い、師家の人 も少しはいむ(忌む)気味あり気にみえ候。是れ人を以て師とする故に候。晋 (すすむ、梅園の名)は天地を師と心得候えば、たとひ少年輩、我より句読を 授け候ても、同門の朋友に候えば、何かいむ事の候べき。此の如く心得候え と、常には申し候事に御座候。

Often people who go to study under teachers are distressed when their own theories differ, and the teachers do not always welcome disagreement either. This happens when men are taken as teachers. I look to heaven-and-earth as my teacher, and even though pupils come to study books under me, because I regard them as fellow students they have no need to refrain from criticism.


議論と実際

此の故に、学問に書上の学問と事上の学問と[21]御座候。書上の学問とは、例 えば論語に、季文子の三度思うて行うを、孔子の再度すとも是れ可なりとの給 いし、いや再度せば是れ可也なりと、其の当否を論じ候様の事なり。是れを事 上にうつしていえば、多念にわたり、猶予狐疑致す様になり、果決なきは用立 たず。早く決断覚しき場あり。幾度も千慮万思の上に決すべきあり。再びせば 可也という時、再びせばの工夫を下し、再びすとも可なりという時、大概是れ に違いはなしと見定めたりとも、猶熟念して、後悔を遺すべからざるの工夫を 下すべくして、注家の是非にあずからざる処あり候。

There is book learning, and also practical learning. As an example of book learning, we might take the controversy over interpreting Confucius' comment in the Analects, namely, whether in response to being told that Chi Wan thought three times before acting, Confucius's answer was "Twice is enough" or "Twice is will do". From the practical point of view, going over all the numerous interpretations can only lead to doubt and confusion, and as no conclusion can be reached they are not much guide to action. There are times when a speedy decision is necessary, and there are times when one should make a decision on the basis of a thousand considerations and ten thousand thoughts. When thinking twice is enough, thinking twice is the appropriate thing to do, and when twice will do, it is probably advisable to think again thoroughly, so that one will have no regrets. All this has nothing to do with whether the interpreters are right or wrong.

この故に書生の学問は其の師の立説を主張する癖ありて、それに我意をくわ え、敵味方とわかるるなり。しからば、文義はいずれに見ても苦しからずと聞 き給わば、是れ又、我が言を執し給うという物に候。さる故に、親もてる人 は、徂徠学にても朱子学にてもよく候。親に孝なる様に学びたく候。槍つかわ ん人は、素槍にても十文字にてもよく候。人をつく程になり度く候。それを 猶、これよく彼よしと論じ候は、あたらぬと申すにてはなく候えども、畢竟、 手前かたやの論にて、上戸下戸の昔より、饅頭と酒の美不美を争いて、今に定 まらざるがごとし。

Thus learning arising from books has the defect of emphasising the teachers' doctrines, and when we add to these our own opinions people divide into opposing factions. But if after my having said this, you should come to the conclusion that books have no significance, you have been taking my words without thinking. For those who have parents will want to learn from them, whether they be of the Sorai school or the Chu Hsi school. The objective of a man who is about to throw a spear, whether he uses astraight spear or a crossed spear, is to hit people. Now although it is appropriate to discuss which is the best way, in the end discussions of the best procedures will never cease, like the ancient debate between drinkers or abstainers about the merits and demerits of manju [bean-paste dumplings] and sake which are still not resolved.


真理と人情

天地の是非善悪というものは、学者もわかれ素人もわかれ、君もにくみ民もに くみ、仏者もほめ儒者もほめ候物に候。それ者同志の是非得失を、みな己が思 うままにせんと思うは、世の中の人の顔を一つ様にせんとおもう様なる者にて 候。造物の手にさえ合わざる事を、己がおもう様にせんとおもうは、[22]大な る不了見に候。

Right and wrong, and good and evil in heaven-and-earth are distinguished by scholars and distinguished by laymen, superior men hate evil and ordinary people hate evil, Buddhists praise good and Confucianists praise good. But to think that one could make everyone agree with oneself about the attainment of good and the avoidance of evil would be like expecting everyone to look alike, it would be a great misconception to believe that we can do what even the creator could not! However, if after my saying this, you should think I have said that evil things that everyone abhors can never be corrected, you have again been taking my words without thinking.

さいえば、又しからばみな悪みいとう悪も、つくり直されまじき程にといわ ば、又さきの言になずめる也。とかく天地は活物故に、活手段なく候ては、よ き事も用をなし難く候。

Because heaven-and-earth is an active object, unless one takes active measures, one cannot bring about good states of affairs.

天地隠さず人に示し候えば、書を読むにも、人にきくにも及ばざる譯には候え ども、又、書にもより人にも問わず候えば、智もひらけ申さず候程に、愚蒙の 言も達観の階梯とも思し召し候わば、天地に御合わせあるべく候。

Heaven and earth are not concealed, but revealed before us, so there is no need to read books or listen to others. Nevertheless one cannot hope to make much progress in wisdom and thought if one does not make use of books or ask people questions. To this extent, even my own poor words may be used as steps to seeing with far-sightedness, provided that they should accord with heaven and earth.

諸家の人のいうをきくに、我が道はかく立つるなり、彼はかく立るなり、など いう也。天地は我立つる者にはあらず。其の立ちたる者に我したがう事に候え ば、天地を全観する事も、人事を精しく察する事も、唯有る通りそのままにみ るより外の細工なく候。さる程に、合点致し候も、火は合点せざる前の通りに もえ、水は合点せざる前の通りにながるる事に候。故に、名は人のつけ候物に 候えば、難波のあし、伊勢の浜荻(所によって呼び名が違う)ともかわるべく 候え共、実は我を以てみだるべからず候。

If you listen to different scholars, they will say "My Way is arranged like this, and his Way is arranged like that". But heaven-and-earth is not for us to arrange, its arrangement is for us to follow. Therefore to see the whole of heaven-and-earth, or to understand human affairs in the smallest detail, we should simply see things just as they are, no other skill is required. And so although we may come to truly understand fire, fire will continue to burn as it did before, and water will continue to flow as it did before we came to understand it. Names are indeed made by people, - a reed has come to be called "naniwa's feet" in Ise, - but no-one can alter things themselves.

さる程に、天機性体を以て、此の天地を全観する事を得ば、経通緯塞の内、虚 動実地の天地を容れ、日月上に転じ、水土下に持し、我と万物と其の路をゆ き、其の宅に居るの真面目を得ん。

If we see heaven-and-earth in terms of heaven, motive power, nature, and body, we see that the hollow moving heaven and substantial earth are contained within heaven-and-earth, which is the passage of the warp and the fullness of the woof; that the sun and moon turning above, the water and soil held below, ourselves, and all the things of the manifold, follow the path and dwell in the house of the heaven-and-earth that we now see clearly.

さる程に、我が目、物に目くるめく間は、万物紛々擾々たるがごとくなれど も、已に天地手に入りてみれば、天地位を定め、火、上に照らし、水、下に湛 うる迄にして、是が活物なるにより、インウン(天地にみなぎるさま)摩蘯 (揺り動かす)して有意温動の動物と、無意冷止の植物と、只此の二種を醸し 出して、其の物(ブツ)と神(シン)とを千態万貌に変化するなれば、至擾 (シジョウ)還って至簡の至りに候。

Therefore although our eyes may be dazzled with a riotous confusion of objects, when we see heaven-and-earth itself before us, heaven-and-earth assigns positions, fire shines above and water fills up below. Because heaven-and-earth is active, from the clashing and intermingling of the forces of yin and yang emerge two kinds, one of them animate, conscious, warm and moving, the other inanimate, unconscious, cold and motionless. The object and the spirit change into a thousand different appearances,and thus the greatest intricacy is at the same time the utmost simplicity.


天(反観)人(推観)  天(自然の世界)

右の趣に候えば、天地をしるは[23]我私の意をいれず、あるままに天地に従い て、天地を師とするにしくはなく候。

As we have said already, to understand heaven-and-earth we must follow heaven-and- earth as it is, without attributing our own ideas to it, there is no teacher to equal heaven-and- earth.

されども、天地物いわず、人々のおもう様に見らるる物にして、正す処の人、 千差万別に候えば、口舌を以て争わんには尽期(ジンゴ:際限)なく、自得に しくはなく候。されども其の自得も心々にて、天地はあじなる物に候。さる程 に、組みて落ちる処は、臭味同じきもの、打ちより語らう事に候。

Nevertheless, heaven-and-earth does not speak, it must be reached through human thought, and among those who try to investigate it there are a thousand differences and ten thousand divisions, verbal disputes are endless. The best way is to apprehend it directly. Direct apprehension notwithstanding, minds are numerous, but heaven-and-earth is the one supreme. Even when people do reach an agreement amongst themselves, they agree because they speak from the same viewpoint.

さるによって、我が説人に強い申さず。此の頃も人来たりて、我が説を破する 人、ある事共物語りしける間、それにてよしと申してかえし候。是も一無窮、 非も亦一無窮。無窮の間に遊ぶことに候。

Therefore I do not press my own doctrine upon people. A short time ago, someone came and told me that people were denouncing my theories, and I replied that there is nothing wrong with that. Right is infinite and wrong is infinite, and we wander between these infinities.

しからば、賢にも、もし古今に歴試し天地に考え、合う処ありとせば、拙き言 も魚兎の筌蹄(目的のための一時の手段)となるべく候。

Although we may reflect wisely on heaven-and-earth, enquiring about the past and examining the present, if our findings should be confirmed by heaven-and-earth, our humble words would merely have done their work as nets and snares for catching fish and rabbits.

よって、かさねて申し入れ候。人は人の境に住み候えば、人よりして智をひら くも據(ヨンドコロ)なき事に候。されど智をひらくに、推すと反すると心得 べき事に候。

And I will say once again, because the human world is confined, we shall not derive a basis for extending our knowledge from other people. So to develop our understanding we must adopt the method of sympathy and the method of opposition.

人よりして人を察するには、「柯を執りて柯をきる」(斧の柄にする木を切る には斧の柄を見本とする)の理にて、我悦ばしき事、人の悦ぶ事にして、我か なしき事、人の哀しむ事なり。己れにあらざる物を察するには、火の好み水に 推すべからず。魚の好み鳥に推すべからず。

Investigation of human affairs from a human viewpoint is using the principle that one takes an axe to make an axe. But when it comes to investigating things whose attributes we do not share, we cannot hope to understand water by knowing fire, or to understand birds by knowing fish.

故に、反観にあらざれば、我にあらざるものに通ずる事能わず。推観にあらざ れば、人に恕(ジョ:思いやり)する事能わず。恕の義は俗に身をつみて人の いたさをしるにして、古人の解も数多くみえ候えば、略し候。

So unless we use the method of seeing opposites, we shall never understand those attributes that we do not possess. And unless we use the method of seeing by sympathy, we shall never have compassion for others. On the meaning of "sympathy", we have the saying that one can only know the pain of others by pinching our own flesh, and this summarises numerous other interpretations of the ancients.

反観、前にも申し候えども、又一物を挙げ、くり返し動植の上に就いて申さ ん。動は鳥獣の總名にして、植は草木の總名なり。然して動は意あり、身温か にしてよく動く。植は意なし、身冷ややか[24]にしてとどまる。動は内虚する を以て、養い(栄養)を上口より内にとり、植は内実するを以て、養いを下体 より表にとり、動、本を上にし末を下にし、植、本を下にし末を上にし、動、 牝牡よりして子を下竅(カゲキ:下の穴)に生じ、植、華実よりして子を上頭 に結び、動、地を離れて横行し、植、地に就きて竪立し、動の枝は数定まりて 下りむかい、植の枝は数定まらずして上りむかい、動、生きては暖かに、死し ては冷ゆ、植、生きては冷え、かれては暖か也というがごとし。

Although I have already spoken about the method of seeing by opposition, I would like to say a little more about it in relation to animals and plants. "Animal" is a general name for birds and beasts, "plants" is a general name for herbs and trees. Animals have consciousness, they are warm and moving. Plants have no consciousness, they are cold and do not move. Because animals have hollows inside, they take in food from an opening above, and because plants are solid inside they take in food from roots below. The roots of an animal are above and their extremities hang downwards, the roots of plants are below, their extremities point upwards. After the mating of male and female, the offspring of animals are born from an opening below; by means of flowers and seeds, the fruit of plants are attached to their upper extremities. Animals go around detached from the ground,plants stand firmly attached to the ground. The limbs of animals are definite in number and hang downwards, the branches of plants are indefinite in number and point upwards. Animals are warm while they are alive and are cold when they die, plants are warm when they wither and cold while they are alive.

山水にていえば、山は本合し末わかれて中高く、水は本わかれ末合して中おち いる。昼夜にていえば、昼は地上の物をしめして天上の物をかくす。夜は天上 の物を示して地上の物をかくす。是れを天地の物にいえば、天に在る物は燥 (カワ)いてうかみ、夜、明を発す。地に在る物はうるおってしずみ、昼、影 をおさむ。天地の物、皆かくのごとく反すれば、天地の物をつくさずんば、其 の反をかぞえ終わるべからず。

Likewise when we come to rivers and mountains, the base of a mountain is intact, it is divided at the foot and high at the centre; a river is divided at the source, it flows together into one at its end and is deep in the centre.
When we come to day and night, by day we can see things on earth but cannot see the heavenly bodies, at night the heavenly bodies appear and we cannot see things on earth. Taking heavenly objects and earthly objects, heavenly objects are dry and float, and radiate light at night. Earthly objects are encircled in a belt of moisture and sink, and cause shadows to gather on the earth by day. All things between heaven and earth are like this. Because they all have opposites, and the number of objects is inexhaustible, one cannot count the pairs of opposites.

故に、反せざれば天を知る事能わず。推さざれば人をしる事能わず。

If one does not use the method of opposition, one will not understand heaven and earth, if one does not use the method of sympathy, one will not understand other people.


人(使然の世界)

已に人と生まれては、才古今に秀でたりとも、眼天地を空すとも、人を出る事 は能わざる也。然る時は、学ぶも修するも人事なり。是れを以て、入りて内に ありても、出て外にありても、貴うして君公の位にありても、賎しうして奴婢 ソウレイにいたりても、只、人の間なれば、只、孝悌忠信礼儀廉恥の間也。

Because we are already born human, even if our talents were to surpass any ever before, or our eyes were to penetrate heaven and earth, we could never cast off our humanity. We may study at times, or learn new skills, but we are still human. Therefore wherever we live, wherever we go, whether we are born respected as lords or masters, or born of low station as menservants or maidservants,because we are all merely human, we all belong in the realm of filial piety, loyalty, etiquette and honour.

もし、この人の外に道をたて、人事に害をなさば、是れ通天下の非なるべし。 故に道は衆を安んずるより大いなるはなく、功は衆を利するよりすぐれたるは なく候。これを以て、[25]上一人より、下億兆にいたる迄、其の品に違いはあ るとも、天、生々の徳にならい、天物を損なわず、分々体々造化をたすけんと 志さば、天地の大徳にそむかざるべき歟。

If someone should depart from the Way of mankind to impair human affairs, all mankind would condemn him. Therefore there can be no Way greater than that which puts human beingsat peace, and there is no skill superior to that which benefits mankind. In this way, from the person of highest station to the multitudes below, whatever their differences in rank, everyone learns the power of the liveliness of heaven, and values the objects it bestows. If we are dedicated to caring for the manifold of creation, could we disregard the great power of heaven and earth?

人生まれて、各其の一箇の天地を有し、各其の混淪の体を立て、各其の鬱渤の 神を活すれば、権(権謀術数)を以て下を御し候。是を控掣すといえども、も し其の徳を失すれば、人情糜沸して、其の権もちゆる所なし。

It is because each person from birth possesses one heaven-and-earth, each body stable with its ownchaotic content and each spirit active with its owndynamic flux, that authority is established to govern the masses. However, even if the people are controlled and governed, if this power should be lost, the feelings of the people well up and that authority will be lost.

其の心の鬱渤、其の身の混淪と、同異、居を同じうすれば、千人の面おなじき ごとく、千人の心同じ。千人の心同じからざるごとく、千人の心同じからず。

Because the dynamic flux of each mind and the chaotic content of each body are two separate things in the same dwelling, if a thousand faces are the same, a thousand minds are the same, if a thousand faces are not the same,a thousand minds are not the same.

故に、世に処するの道、意智の明、研窮すべしといえども、人情の変化熟せず んばあるべからず。「民の失徳、ケンコウ(ほしいい)以て過つ」(少しの乾 飯を与えないことにより民の徳を失う)と申すも、この処にて御座候。

Therefore, although the Way of mankind is learning in the light of wisdom, we must always be aware of a thousand varieties and ten thousand differences in the human condition. The saying that famine causes people to lose their virtue expresses this.

さる故に、世の中の或いはみだれ或いは治まり、或いはたすけ或いは殺し、悦 びかなしみ、泣きうたうも、皆々の鬱渤の所作にして、よく此の鬱渤の所作を しらば、己れを修め人をもよくし、長にかの天命にやすんずべく候。かしく。

Sometimes the people are disturbed, sometimes they are calm, sometimes they are merciful, sometimes they kill one another. Joy and sorrow, songs and tears, all these are the work of dynamic flux. If people are able to appreciate fully the function of dynamic flux, they will control themselves well, and treat others well, and may live long in peace under heaven and destiny.


安永丁酉臘月二日
                         孖山  三浦 晋

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