Not clickable image. This figure is in the book titled "Human's part of Small Book" writtern in 1775.
Reised 23 times, GENGO was completed once at 1775 years.
However, Baien started working on the 24th full revision and died on the way.



A map of "Nature's Way and Human's Way, and those activities"



This figure seems to be influenced by the ideas of Lao-tzu and Confucius. The two classic philosophies had placed into the system of GENGO.

Laozi and Confucius taught the way of humankind, but they did not place human beings within a rational world system. Baien had succeeded in giving its logical place to human beings, as part of the world system.

Zhu Xi built a grand logical system that covers everything from man to nature. But his world system constructed that on the idea that the earth was a square. Therefore, they thought that the ground was square, and the sky covered the earth like a dome. Why did he feel the surface was a square? Because China was too big for even a great thinker like him.

Therefore, his thought did not free from the fixed framework of hierarchical relationship, in which heaven was above, and the earth was below. That became the rationale for the fixation of social status between superiors and inferiors. And that was also the basis of Sinocentrism, which claimed that China was the center of the world.

In the early Edo period of Japan, to stabilize the shogunate system, the government actively tried to maintain the system. Ideologically, Shushigaku (Neo-Confucianism) made the formal learning of the nation. However, there were not a few private scholars who were learning new views of nature from such as the "Tenkei Wakumon," influenced by the ancient Greek astronomy brought by Mateo Ricci, led to an ideological departure from Sinocentrism.

Their name was Yamaga Soko, Yamagata Banto, Nakai Chikuzan, Motoori Norinaga, Asada Goryu, Miura Baien, and the others. They had left Sinocentrism and woke up to the originality of Japan. Some of them searched Japanese historical roots and found that the core history of Japan has been Empeler's from the start of Japan as an independent state. Norinaga was the most typical historian, and Baien was also one of them, and he had written the third important work named "敢語(Kango)," which means "A book to dare to write" at forty-five years.

"Kango" was denounced by many official scholars because the book denied the existence of the Tokugawa Shogunate. But the book became one of the triggers the Meiji Restoration, and all official scholars of the Edo period vanished from Japanese history.


Let's take a look at this figure with the above description in mind. The letter "天" which written upside-down in the middle of the upper quadrant means nature and the two characters in the ring of the first quadrant shows the creativity of that. The "誠" out of the circle means the reality of nature in which subjectivity cannot intervene.

The letter "無意" in the circle of the second quadrant shows that nature itself has no purpose.

For Asians, nature is not a volitional entity, and therefore not an entity that advances towards its ultimate purpose. "Taoism" seen by Laozi, the "On the Equality of Things" seen by Zhuang Zhou, and the inexplicable existence of Baien's, which is shown by a blank page, have a typical character. Based on this assumption, looking at the upper half of the quadrant indicated by the symbol "天", which means nature, we can see that Baien defines the natural world as acting without purpose.

The "公," which has not explained yet, means the purposelessness of nature's activities has fairness beyond the judgment of good and evil.

The lower semicircle is then the opposite. In other words, it is human activity and spirituality. Whereas the "無意"-involuntary- in the 2nd quadrant has no intended. In contrast, the "有意" in the 3rd quadrant means it has a will.

The letter "私" outside the circle indicates that "human subjectivity" is intentional. The smallest unit is individuality with no common sense, and that was what most hated being by Japanese people until the Edo period. Especially in Baien, the individual often used in the same sense as mistakes. Baien makes it clear at the end of GENGO that "If there is a mistake, it is my personal thought, you throw it away."

In the fourth quadrant, "有作" means "make intentionally" and "偽" means "something dissimilar". Even if human beings mimic nature, it is not nature itself. No matter how much natural science develops, that can't even make a single ant. On the contrary, the natural sciences integrated with the economy are beginning to destroy the earth's ecosystem and humans themselves. That indicates that human activity exceeds the lower quadrant. I recall the next part of "The Drunken Boat" by the French poet Arthur Rambo, which I read nearly 50 years ago.

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I have seen the enormous swamps seething, traps
Where a whole leviathan rots in the reeds!
Downfalls of waters in the midst of the calm
And distances cataracting down into abysses!
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Glaciers, suns of silver, waves of pearl, skies of red-hot coals!
Hideous wrecks at the bottom of brown gulfs
Where the giant snakes devoured bvermin
Fall from the twisted trees with black odours!
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When I was a young age, I have felt that the "Where a whole leviathan rots in the reeds!" and "giant snake" means Europe. Then I thought "traps" and "vermin" must be modern science. I felt that he realized that human beings have deviated from where they should be by the power of natural science and the economy. It is very symbolic that The Drunken Boat is himself, and the crew was gone. I think he expressed in the next two lines that individuals are bloating in a new civilization and that it is destroying European traditions.

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Where the giant snakes devoured bvermin
Fall from the twisted trees with black odours!
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And then he wrote in the second from the end of the poem like bellow.

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If there is one water in Europe I want, it is the
Black cold pool where into the scented twilight
A child squatting full of sadness, launches
A boat as fragile as a butterfly in May.
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I feel that he remembered traditional Europe and seems to be lamenting the loss of that. I think that he felt as if he is lamenting the fact that human desires have grown so large that human beings have lost sight of the realm of nature. In other words, it was his grief over the loss of Europe.

Looking at this chart, I feel that Western science and technology since the 18 century has continued to destroy the original relationship between nature and man. It was linked to the economy and became even stronger. However, it is a direction in which the human organism destroys its host, nature, like proliferating cancer cells, and eventually dies. We must think about the paradigm of the next era.

Colin Wilson's first work, "The Outsider," features many poets and artists like Arthur Rimbaud. They almost always died in the wheel of modern civilization.

Miura Baien was blessed with the time, economic power and physical strength required for thought. Therefore, he built a storehouse for the books he bought and wrote a huge amount of books. His life and work were stable, but ideologically he was a total outsider. My life changed after when I read "The Outsider". Then I started to work on deciphering "GENGO" because Baien was totality an Outsider. In this sense, Lao Tzu and Chuang Zi were also outsiders.

Human history will undergo a paradigm change in this century. Miura Baien's ideas will be the foundation of the next civilization.


go to couplet sentences of Gengo
Most of the sentences of Gengo are written like that.
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